5 problems that you may encounter when making English versions of your texts

A lot of my text-based work with clients involves getting to the heart of what they want to say, and making sure that they can say or write it in English – in a way that is both correct and that sounds like them.

Here are just some of the things that I help clients to avoid when I’m proofreading or providing communication consultancy services:

1. Things that don’t make sense to a British-English-speaking audience

This usually has nothing to do with language. Cultural references can be tricky, and sometimes you don’t even realise that you’re making an assumption about what the other person knows or the connections that they will make when they read the text. This could be when you mention a dish or delicacy that most people outside your country have never heard of – we have plenty of those in the UK. It could be when you make reference to a significant day, a well-known person, or an activity that is popular where you are, but not so much in the rest of the world.

If you do these things without providing any background information, you can quickly lose people’s attention because they don’t know what you’re talking about. They disengage because they can’t follow the point, or you send them down a virtual rabbit hole, googling the thing that they didn’t understand.

Either way, they’re not reading or listening to your message any more!

2. Words that may be grammatically correct, but which have negative connotations

These are particularly a problem if they crop up in your carefully crafted headline or are repeated throughout your website. They act as a turn-off because of the way that people think or feel when they see that word, even though that was never your intention and you maybe even wanted to portray a good or positive thing.

Words take on a life of their own. Even when it comes to words that started off with a positive meaning – if there is any ambiguity about how people will interpret them, it’s often best to avoid them altogether.

3. Text where the grammar or structure follows rules in another language

I used to joke around with a German-speaking friend and write English messages according to the German sentence structure. It was a kind of joke between us, but it hurts your brain after a while because so many words are in the wrong place, and the structure is illogical in English!

Most texts that I see aren’t like that, but there are sometimes structures that creep in that don’t belong in well-written English sentences. There is interference because the person who wrote it was thinking in a different language. I do this too – English sentence structure or an English way of explaining something has no place in my work when I’m writing in other languages, but when it’s our own work, we don’t always see it creeping in!

4. A tone that is not appropriate for the situation

If it’s too formal, you can sound stuffy and pretentious. Language becomes outdated and it’s hard to recognise that sometimes if you aren’t working in an environment where you can witness those changes.

If there’s too much slang or casual language for the specific situation, it can make you look less professional or less sincere.

If you do one thing on your site in your first language and your English version doesn’t line up with that, it can feel inconsistent. Each brand has its own voice and it’s really important to be able to find that voice when you’re communicating in additional languages too.

5. Anything that sounds as though a machine produced it!

I heard that even search engines can spot automatically-translated text and it’s not a good thing for the owner of the site.

Google Translate might be ok to check the occasional sentence fragment, or to find out what someone is talking about when they fill my contact form out in a language that I don’t speak – nothing good usually comes of those messages, but curious minds want to know!

However, when it comes to positioning yourself and your business, you don’t want to rely on a flawed automatic translation!

Most people do understand that, but sticking rigidly to the original text when you’re translating it manually, or first thinking about the content in another language can unfortunately lead to the same outcome. Something that sounds unnatural, clumsy, or just a bit odd!

Kirsty sitting with her dog on grass

Find out more

I hope these tips were useful. If you need any support in terms of identifying these and similar problems, or making good content even better, send me a message so that we can arrange to talk about it!


    Improving accessibility for people with hidden disabilities or mobility access needs

    One of the benefits of my accessibility course is a monthly meeting for participants. Sometimes we look at an accessibility topic in more detail, sometimes we do a practical exercise that can be replicated in our businesses to make them more accessible, and sometimes we have a guest speaker – because I don’t teach on the subjects that I don’t know about and I’d rather listen to someone who can share their experience and add value.

    Vie from Vieness Discover You Love You community interest Company came to talk to us about ways that business owners can be more inclusive and accessible for those with hidden disabilities. You can listen to Vie’s talk using the media player, or read her words below.

    I don’t have a hidden disability, but I definitely relate to some of these points – as I often say, making life better for one group of people often helps several other groups too. But I also learned some things through Vie’s talk, which is why it’s so important to listen to those with other experiences so we can learn how to best meet their access needs.

    Who am I?

    “I look healthy. I look robust. I’m even prone to bouts of energetic activity, especially on a dance floor or when playing with children or when I am at my favourite place, Monkey World.

    I don’t look disabled.

    Unless I am using a stick, you cannot see that I may have difficulties moving around.

    And, sometimes, when I am using a stick, you may see me participate in some behaviours that may seem peculiar and at odds with my stick.

    I was born with a rare genetic skin blistering condition, Epidermolysis Bullosa, with subtype Simplex Generalised Intermediate. This means that I am prone to blistering and shearing on my hands, feet, mouth and throat; I can also blister in other areas where there is friction. For those of us with EB, our blisters can be big. Imagine the blisters you get on the back of your heel when you are wearing new shoes; for us, that blister could grow to cover our entire heel. There were many times before diagnosis that a blister would engulf all of my toes. Simple childhood scrapes would result in large patches of skin coming off and long recovery times.

    Unfortunately, I wasn’t diagnosed until I was an adult, which meant that, for the first, almost thirty, years of my life, I was walking on heavily blistered feet, which has probably been a huge contributor to some of the other conditions I now have, degenerative spinal disease, thoracic outlet syndrome, bursitis, and peripheral neuropathy.

    Every one of those conditions is an invisible disability. A person would not know I have them unless I told them.

    This can make things difficult. I would imagine that, for most of us that live with disabilities, things are more difficult than for those that don’t.

    What can you do as a business owner to be more inclusive?

    As a business owner, which often includes organising events, I understand how difficult it is to be fully inclusive; to include every possible consideration for making an event accessible. But that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try at all.

    That hotel, surrounded by a natural forest is truly stunning! It’s a beautiful setting for any kind of event. As the event organiser, you probably drove there, looked around, loved everything, great parking.

    But what about the attendees who are unable to drive? How could they get there? That beautiful hotel in the middle of a forest is unlikely to be accessible via public transport, especially if it’s not in the centre of a town. Maybe there’s a bus that stops ten minutes walk away. Great. If your mobility is good.

    For me, to get to anywhere like that would usually involve at least two buses, possibly a train, and a walk, which would all take at least twice as long as someone driving in their car. And there are the elements to deal with as well. So, for me to get up and get somewhere like that for a 10am start, would mean leaving my house by 8.30 at the latest, hoping no buses or connections are delayed, being jostled on buses that are always busy at that time, then walking, possibly up uneven ground. I’m exhausted before I have even reached the event. Then two hours of schmoozing and the journey has to be repeated in reverse. So, for a two hour meeting, it would involve at least three hours of travelling time, and me being exhausted and unable to work for the rest of the day and possibly the next day or two as well.

    What could you do, as a business owner? I understand that you wouldn’t want to change the venue, so make plans instead. Organise lift shares. Yes, the person that needs the lift could ask, but, one, as the organiser, you have more power, and, two, for the person with disabilities, it can be so demoralising to have to ask, to have to explain, over and over. As the organiser, you can start a thread, or send messages, and say anyone from this area please travel together if possible. You can say it’s an environmental effort; why use four cars with one person in, when you can use one car with four people in?

    For bigger events, especially ticketed ones, consider the venue. Is it accessible by public transport? Does it have lift access? Are the seats tiered? Tiered means steps, which aren’t always accessible by everyone. Is there good leg room?

    All of these things would be things that need to be considered for someone with most kinds of mobility difficulties. For me, having to walk up steps can cause additional pain; sitting in seats where I can’t move my legs causes additional pain. It’s also not too pleasant for people seated around me if I start spasming because of the excessive pain.

    Do you want your attendees to go away, feeling uncomfortable, pained, and not having enjoyed the event, or go away knowing that you made every effort to be inclusive?

    The spoons theory

    Have you heard about the Spoon Theory? It says that those of us that live with chronic conditions only have so many spoons a day. Imagine we have twelve spoons a day.

    Some days, we can use just one spoon for an event; other days, whether it’s due to lack of sleep, higher levels of pain, exhaustion from previous days’ activities, or because you are fighting off an infection (which is quite frequently in my case), it can take a spoon to sit up and get out of bed.

    Making breakfast can take another spoon or two. Having a shower and getting dressed can take another two spoons. That’s five spoons before you have even left the house. Waiting for buses or other public transport, another spoon; travelling, another spoon; walking, another spoon; chatting to people (an enjoyable activity but it can be exhausting!) can be another spoon; travelling home, which is now harder because you are more tired, will be at least double the spoons, which is six spoons. The mathematicians amongst you will have worked out that that is 15 spoons. Which means you are already in deficit for the rest of the day, the next day, and possibly beyond.

    So how can you, as a business owner, make things easier?

    Ask!! And listen to the answers.

    Know that one size does not fit all; know that every day is different even for those of us that live with the conditions.

    Be considerate. As I’ve mentioned previously, arrange lift shares.

    In addition to this, offer to get drinks and bring them to the table. Don’t make events all standing. Don’t judge us on how you see us on one time; as I mentioned at the beginning, I can have huge bursts of energy; other times I can struggle to walk.

    Always remember that before we are anything else, we are human, with the same thoughts and feelings as you, and that we want to live life as fully as you do, whenever our disabilities allow.

    You can make it much easier.”

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      How to become a better listener and why it’s important for building relationships

      I’m a language teacher. You hear a lot about listening skills in language courses. It’s an important skill to develop, but most of the time, the exercises are something that you have to listen to and write down some important information. That’s fine as a way to test that people have understood what they were listening to, but most of the important information we get from listening doesn’t happen when we’re listening to something where we have no input. It comes from conversations.

      We all need to listen

      It’s not just learners of a language who should improve their listening skills. It’s something we all need to think about.

      Blind people and listening

      Let’s quickly use this opportunity to deal with the myth that blind people’s hearing is naturally better. We may train our ears to be more perceptive because we don’t have access to the sense of sight, but it’s not some kind of automatic super-sense. In any event, hearing and really listening are not the same thing. I know blind people who don’t listen well and rarely pay attention. So what I mean is that this whole listening thing is not automatically easier for me. It’s something that we all need to put time and energy into learning and becoming better at.

      Listening is not just about hearing what people say. It’s also about what they don’t say, how they say things, what they avoid saying, how long it takes to answer… Information that they thought others wouldn’t pick up on. All these things can give you vital clues as to what they really mean.

      So why is it important to listen?

      1. If you don’t, you can miss important information

      This can have terrible consequences for you if you are at work. You might not have the most up-to-date information, and this may mean that you make mistakes/do unnecessary work/just don’t know what’s going on.

      Also, if you’re not paying attention, others can pick up on the fact that you weren’t listening. This might be embarrassing if you suddenly say something that someone else has already mentioned earlier in the meeting. It draws attention to you in a negative way, and that’s the contribution that people will remember from the meeting.

      2. It helps to show that you are interested

      I sometimes use the example of the student who was really surprised that I remembered what he’d said in our previous lesson when I asked how he was. Someone was ill in the family, so I asked about them next time I saw him. He was surprised I remembered. I was surprised that he was surprised!

      But the point is, if you show an interest in people and the things that they tell you, it makes them feel heard and strengthens your relationship. It’s also just part of being a decent human, which should really be the main motivation. If you’re doing it as part of a formula to build stronger relationships, people will see through it sooner or later!

      3. It will help you to ask the right follow up questions

      If you’re having a conversation with someone, you can’t plan everything out in advance. Conversations are spontaneous. You don’t know what the other person will say, and therefore, even if you have some ideas of what you want to find out, really listening to the other person’s answers will help you to understand and ask better follow-up questions. This shows that you are engaging with them and what they have to say.

      4. It prevents small problems from becoming bigger

      Sort out the issue before it grows and becomes harder to resolve. Find out as soon as possible if people aren’t happy, if something’s wrong, or if there’s a problem with something you’re working on. If you know about it, you can try to fix it – or at least try to be part of the solution.

      5. It shows you don’t think everything is about your agenda

      I imagine most people don’t actually think this, but when they only focus on their ideas or contributions, it can feel a bit like that for others in the conversation, and that’s not a good image to promote.

      How to be a better listener

      1. Focus on the person and their words

      This means really listening to them.

      I’ve worked in an office where I could have a conversation and keep typing about something unrelated, but if it’s a serious conversation, give someone your full attention. This means not checking your phone, looking out of the window, taking calls, answering emails etc. Even if you are able to listen and do those things, they can give the impression that you are pre-occupied with something else.

      2. Listen to learn, not to plan what you want to say next

      This can be hard if you’re operating in another language because you also need time to think about what you want to say. But if you use the time while the other person is talking to think about your own next sentence, you will miss things, and you’ll make it harder for the conversation to flow.

      3. Misplaced “empathy” is a problem

      Sometimes people can be really quick to try and show empathy, but this can come across as clumsy and counterproductive if what they’re really doing is recounting a similar (or maybe not similar) experience of their own. Shared experience is good, but sometimes people need space to talk, and not to hear how you “know how they feel”, when chances are, you probably don’t if you haven’t even let them finished telling you what happened or how they felt about it.

      4. Make sure advice is relevant

      This is similar to the empathy point, but you can’t give good advice if you don’t understand the problem. Give people time to finish explaining it first before you plough ahead giving your advice or solutions.

      5. Be ok with some silence

      A lot of people are uncomfortable with silence, but some silence is good. It gives people time to reflect on what the other person has said, or on what they want to say next. If you fill all the time with words, you take away someone else’s chance to think and speak.

      Long, uncomfortable silences are something else. But taking a few seconds to reflect or let a point sink in can really help the other person – and you – to move on with the conversation in a meaningful way.

      6. make time for people

      If you don’t have time for an important conversation, don’t start it until you do. If something needs your attention, try and make time for it. Trying to talk with someone who looks like they’d rather be somewhere else can be really off-putting and some people will just shut down or say it wasn’t important because the other person looks like they’re about to leave at any second.

      7. ask relevant questions that show you are listening

      Most of the time, the things that people say will give you clues about what to say or ask next. But you won’t know this unless you listen and think about the information that the other person has just given you, or the information gaps that they need to fill in for you.

      8. people want to be heard

      This is particularly relevant now that more of us are spending time in online meetings, but from my time in companies that had more face-to-face meetings, it’s always been an issue. Don’t talk over people. Don’t shut them down because you think you know what they are trying to say. Don’t patronise them by giving the impression that you know better.

      9. don’t interrupt

      Following on from the point about letting people be heard, don’t interrupt them either. People do this for a number of reasons – because they want to say something that they think is urgent, because they want to disagree, or even because they want to agree sometimes. But apart from being rude, it’s stealing the other person’s opportunity to finish what they were saying.

      10. Summarise what you’ve heard

      Is it the same as what the other person wanted to communicate? If not, now’s the time to fix that misunderstanding before you leave and go away with a completely different understanding than the other person. Fix it now before you act on or pass that incomplete/inaccurate information on to someone else!

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        Craig Smith

        Interview with Craig Smith on proofreading, editing, and tips for correcting your own writing

        Craig Smith from CRS Editorial came on my podcast to talk about his new business, the difference between a podcaster and an editor, and some tips for when you’re checking your own work. You can listen to our conversation on my English with Kirsty site, or you can read a text version of Craig’s answers below.

        Can you tell us something about yourself?

        Hi. I’m Craig Smith from CRS Editorial. I am an editor, proofreader, copywriter and journalist with over 20 years’ experience of working across many formats with different-sized organisations and for a wide range of target audiences.

        With near enough my whole career spent in the publishing sector, I have edited and proofread work for a wide range of clients. In addition to editing and proofreading, I am also a proficient writer having written for, and being the editor of, a membership health and fitness publication and the UK’s leading sports coaching magazine. I am also a blog writer having completed such work for several organisations.

        I am the proud proofreader of the 2020 edition of Safe Practice in Physical Education, School Sport and Physical Activity – a recommended resource for all schools delivering these activities on the national curriculum. My most recent work involved proofreading a fantasy fiction novel.

        Key work has been completed on behalf of the NHS, multiple national governing bodies, and for local and national media. Throughout my 20+ years in the industry I have written, edited and proofread hundreds of items, ranging from one-page marketing flyers, journals, annual reviews, all the way through to 400-page resources, with an ability to tailor my skills for both print and digital format.

        What’s one thing that you have learned as someone who set up their own business?

        I would say I learnt a lot of things going from full-time employment to setting up my own business, but the main point would have to be trusting my instinct. I knew I had the foundations in place as a qualified editor, proofreader and copywriter, so once I had researched what was required to go solo, I thought the time was right and so I took the plunge in October 2020. I should add too, how supportive people were and continue to be.

        Can you explain the key differences between proofreading and editing?

        Firstly, I would say the edit can take on a few forms. Initially, there is the ‘copy edit’ or the ‘content edit’.

        Copy editing involves editing fresh from the source (so, the author). The purpose here is to check typos, basic grammar, inconsistencies, style (is there a house or a preferred style?), structure and to raise editorial queries relating to sense, references, abbreviations and heading levels. Minor suggestions are also highlighted at this stage.

        Content editing includes elements of crossover with a copy edit, though this stage delves deeper into the editorial process. It can include restructuring, and conducting research into queries concerning references and abbreviations. A content edit can also initiate suggestions to the author for potential rewriting, if required.

        Both copy editing and content editing do not necessarily require a subject area background. Although this may be of benefit, the ultimate job of the editor is to see things from the reader’s perspective, breaking things down and ensuring clarity of message.

        A proofreader will act as a second pair of eyes and will read through the content, which has most likely by this stage been designed if it is for publication. The proofreader will check for consistency and layout. If requested to do so, a proofreader can also perform a ‘proof check’ against the editor’s file to ensure everything the editor submitted to the designer has been included.

        I think it is important to stress that the proofreader and the editor are separate people, as fresh eyes to the project can highlight new things. Take a published book, for example (it doesn’t matter whether it is printed or digital). The editor will edit the content before it goes to a designer. The proofreader will view the document after it has been designed.

        The reason for this? We are all human and mistakes can creep in at the design stage, or it may be the editor missed something at the outset.

        When you’re looking at other people’s writing, what are a couple of the biggest mistakes or problems that you come across?

        I would say the overriding one is inconsistency. It may be of tense used, character names in novels, layout of a resource, page numbers being incorrect, or typos here and there.

        I think the biggest tip I can give is to get someone else to look over your work. You may think you have everything correct, but the chances are you are too close to your work and therefore a fresh pair of eyes could highlight things you had not even considered. Everything written is produced for a target audience in mind. It is crucial that your work reaches this audience and resonates with them, otherwise, they will switch off. That is where an editor or a proofreader can add so much.

        Where can we find you online?

        You can visit visit my website, find me on Twitter, or connect with me on LinkedIn.

        Thanks Craig for sharing your story and your ideas with us.

        Find out more

        I also link episodes of the podcast that are focussed on aspects of communication in my monthly EwK Services newsletter. You can sign up for it using the form below.


          Managing expectations – the power of “no”!

          I just got a call from someone who wanted to talk to me about something that I really wasn’t interested in!

          First I said I was busy. This was true enough, but really it was just an excuse. I knew deep down I wasn’t going to find time for this thing because I didn’t want to do it.

          So of course, saying I was busy gave the idea that this was the problem. Most people aren’t busy all the time, so the obvious next question was “can I call you back later?”

          If I’d said yes, I’d only be delaying the inevitable phone call that I didn’t want, or stringing someone along because I knew that ultimately I wasn’t going to agree to the request.

          So I said it would be better if they didn’t because I didn’t want to do the thing that they were asking of me. This saved both of our time because they wouldn’t be calling me again!

          Harsh? Maybe! But it’s also fair because I managed her expectations. I showed that I respected my time and hers.

          Sometimes a polite “no” is better than a “maybe later” so that everybody knows where they stand. We’re all busy. We can all find a bit more time for the things that are important to us. How does the saying go? If you want something to be done, ask a busy person!

          So the next time you use the excuse that you’re too busy, maybe ask yourself if you’re really too busy, or you just don’t want to do the thing! If it’s the latter, it might be better to find a way to get that across respectfully so the other person knows where they stand instead of giving them false hope that you might not be busy later. It will save you time too because the other person won’t keep trying to see if you are a bit less busy!

          It’s good to be open to new opportunities, but sometimes this pressure to always say “yes” can end up putting us under more pressure, and being less honest with ourselves and others.

          The lockdown has brought that home. I’ve heard people saying “I didn’t really want to agree to meet up online after work, but what else have I got to do? We can’t go anywhere, so they know we’re in”.

          But we all have choices. We all have responsibilities, whether that’s to others, to our businesses or to ourselves. It’s ok to be a bit less busy. It’s ok to say “no thank you” if you just don’t fancy something or if the answer is never going to be a heartfelt “yes”!

          If you’d like to receive my monthly newsletter with communication tips, use the sign-up form at the bottom of this page.


            Small talk for those who don’t enjoy it

            I work mainly with people who need to use English at work. Most people come to me because they want to improve their speaking skills, but generally it’s not the technical presentations or the detailed descriptions of their products that cause the problems.
            No! It’s the small talk. I know it’s not only my language learner students who struggle with this. Many people don’t enjoy it in their first language either.

            You never know exactly what the other person is going to say, or whether they will keep the conversation going. Nobody wants to stand there, feeling awkward, and wishing that they had a brilliant reply or an idea that would keep everyone talking.

            I talk a lot at work and I can get most people into a conversation about something or other, but I do struggle to gather up the energy to do it sometimes. Small talk can drain me in a way that a passionate conversation about something that I care about never will.

            I believe I’m not alone. There are more people like me who either can’t be bothered to fight to make themselves heard, or who don’t see the point of talking about something which is completely irrelevant to them, just to have something to say.

            When I asked one of my friends why he doesn’t like small talk, he said that he didn’t want to be false and pretend to be interested in topics that bored him. I can understand this, and I feel like this sometimes, but I find it easier to focus on small talk as a tool for getting to know someone, rather than the topic, which could indeed be at best superficial and at worst a bit dull at first.

            I’m not here to say it’s ok not to get involved in small talk, though I do understand it will never be a favourite pastime for some of us! We may always need to work a bit harder than those to whom it comes naturally. But I would like to offer you some tips on how to engage in the activity, even if you don’t particularly enjoy it.

            Why is small talk important?

            When I was younger, I had a guide dog who helped me to get around because of my visual impairment. She was a big, happy golden retriever and many people loved her.

            The problem was, it was always the same. I’d settle down on the train after a long day at work, on my long commute out of London ready to read my book. Then people would decide they wanted to talk to me.

            “What’s your dog’s name?”
            “How old is she?”
            “Isn’t she a good dog?”
            “Do you know your dog’s beautiful?”

            Yes, I did know my dog was beautiful, and her name and age were the same answers I gave when someone else asked me a couple of hours before!

            There is nothing wrong with the questions, but when you go through the same ones again and again, it can feel a bit pointless. A bit like talking about the weather, a popular thing to discuss when nobody knows what else to say.

            The thing is that the questions weren’t always pointless. Sometimes they were just a way to start a conversation.

            Sometimes it never went past the “what a pretty face” stage, but sometimes it ended up with me finding out from one lady about a charity that helps lost dogs, another man recognising me from a previous conversation and giving me train information that hadn’t been announced, and a third lady became a good friend with whom I went on a couple of weekend breaks and who introduced me to some of her friends. A group of us even ended up spending Christmas together!

            Without those seemingly pointless beginnings, or the general questions that I’d answered a million times before, the rest of the relationship would not have developed.

            So what can you do if you don’t enjoy small talk?

            Here are some tips.

            #1. See it as a means to an end

            Don’t think “this is pointless/boring/a waste of time”, but see it as a way of getting to know the other person and for them to get to know you. It’s the wrapping paper on the Christmas present! You can’t get to the present inside unless you first take off the wrapping paper! Don’t feel pressured into believing it’s something you’ll grow to love. Maybe you won’t, but it’s often part of the job, so if you don’t love it, settle for developing strategies that will help you to make the most of it.

            2. Find common interests

            If you’re worried that you’ll run out of things to say, think of some ways you can keep conversations going and avoid awkward silences. These include things like finding common interests, asking questions based on what the other person has just said, and bringing other people into the conversation.

            #3. Set a time limit

            If it’s a social event and you’re really not looking forward to it, set yourself a time limit. Of course it’s better if you try to enjoy yourself, but if you really struggle, it’s easier if you know you’re leaving at 10 o’clock, rather than waiting for the last person to leave. This is easier in larger groups than on a one-to-one or small group basis, but it can give you something to work towards.

            Many of the online meetings that we attend now do have set time limits, and it’s easier to make your excuses and leave if things are going on a bit!

            #4. Move around

            This is harder in the online space, but if you’re at a physical event, try to move around. This won’t work at a sit-down meal with allocated seats, but maybe the people in a different group are talking about something to which you can contribute more. You won’t know unless you go and find out!

            5. 1 to one conversations are often easier than large groups

            Sometimes it’s easier to take the initiative with just one person than to find a way to fit into a conversation that is already going on, perhaps not in a direction where you have anything to say.

            Can you start up a conversation with someone who’s on their own? They may well thank you for it!

            6. Ask questions and actively listen

            You don’t have to do all the talking. Sometimes it’s enough to ask good questions. You’d be amazed how much some people enjoy talking about themselves! Of course you don’t want it to be too one-sided, but getting other people talking is a good way to remain part of the conversation and not have to talk as much, if this is something that you feel less comfortable doing.

            We call it small talk, but conversation is a give-and-take process that involves talking and listening. To be good at conversations, you have to be good at listening as well, and people definitely value it if they feel someone is really listening to them. Also, you can learn so much about other people if you actively listen, which makes it easier to develop a better relationship with them.

            7. Start small

            Bear in mind that you might find small talk uncomfortable, but approaching people that you’ve just met for the first time with deep and meaningful conversations has the potential to make them feel uncomfortable too! It’s all about balance! Maybe your conversation partner will get away from trivial things that you find boring, but it’s usually safer to start with safer topics!

            The key word there is “start”. We never improve skills that we never use!

            So, whether you love it or hate it, small talk is a part of our daily lives, and it does help to make connections with people in a way that other forms of communication can’t.

            See whether you can try to make it something that works for you, rather than something to be avoided at all costs!

            Find out more

            If you would be interested in more articles about language, communication, and getting your message across well, you can sign up for my monthly newsletter using the form below:


              Difficult colleagues – or when communication styles clash

              I don’t think anyone goes out of their way to be difficult, but it’s a fact that some people are naturally easier to get along with than others. We don’t all feel drawn to the same people though, so some of it can also be to do with how we relate to people as well and what our preferences are.

              Sometimes a person may have a reputation for being difficult. Other times their style of communicating may just not work so well with certain people in the workplace.

              Either way – sometimes conflict can arise at work and I’d like to look at some communication strategies for dealing with or diffusing these situations.

              If someone has annoyed you – and let’s face it, from time to time people do – it’s always better to respond rather than react. Think about what your response will communicate to the other person. Take time if you need to – but don’t just fire off an angry or sarcastic email, or copy in more people to prove your point in front of an audience and make the other person think twice about annoying you in the future. Doing this kind of thing can reflect on you too, and not in a good way!

              Obviously specific problems need specific solutions – these are just a few tips that focus on communication

              What’s the best way to communicate?

              Nowadays so much more of our communication is taking place online. Some of us love this. It’s been my preferred way of communicating for years, and I often keep in touch with some of my best friends in text chat or online meetings. That was the case even before the pandemic. I have a global network, and a lot of my friends spend a lot of their business and private lives online.

              But some people have had to make a transition to more online working, and some people are finding this transition easier than others. Some people find it more uncomfortable, and this can affect their working relationships – because they really miss the face-to-face interactions or chats around the coffee machine.

              What is really the problem?

              Is it the person or the action?

              Not everyone will like everyone, and you will naturally find some people easier to work with than others – because of how they interact, how they work, how much they communicate, how much they like small talk etc. Often there isn’t a right or a wrong way to do these things, but they can make it harder when people clash.

              I remember a colleague that a number of other colleagues found difficult to work with. We got on just fine. The colleague was pretty direct and to the point. If they thought something was a bad idea, they would tell you – straight away. I liked that, and we developed a good working relationship.

              So your “difficult colleague” might be someone else’s favourite person! Sometimes we’re just different and it helps to look at your own communication with the other person, to see whether there is anything that they respond better to, and whether you can communicate with them in a way that will get a better reaction.

              If you know that someone is likely to annoy you, try not to dismiss their ideas automatically. I will always remember my boss telling me that one day one of my other colleagues might have a really good idea, but I’d miss it, because I immediately became dismissive whenever I saw her name. He was right.

              Or is it what they are doing

              It’s easier to pin down if the thing that you find difficult is what the person is doing. Are they leaving everything to the last minute, which impacts on your ability to do your job? Do they keep changing their mind, which makes it hard for people to know what they are supposed to be doing? Do they fail to pass on information, which means people don’t know what’s going on? Do they sing at their desk and distract everyone (yes I’ve had to deal with this!)? Do they spread gossip or rumours or try to cause arguments in the team by spreading false information?

              These are specific behaviours that are easier to pinpoint and challenge because of their impact on others.

              Is it the method of communication?

              We all have preferences. How much small talk do you like before the meeting really gets going? Do you want to get to know someone or just get down to business?

              Does highlighting problems mean that someone is negative, or that they just want to find solutions before the problems arise?

              How much does it bother you if you don’t achieve all you set out to in a meeting, but you did get other things done?

              Would you rather someone sends you an email or gives you a call? I much prefer email because I find it much more time-efficient, but some people hate this.

              Some people don’t come across well in writing. Some misunderstandings can be avoided if you have a conversation.

              Some people need time to process what you’re asking or telling them, so expecting an immediate response to a lot of new information will make it harder for them.

              Choosing the way you communicate can really play a role in how well the communication will go. It’s sometimes good to think about this, rather than to keep doing what you’ve always done in the past.

              What is their intention?

              Is there a problem because you have conflicting priorities? Is this thing important to them? Do they have other time pressures or other concerns that you aren’t aware of, or that don’t affect you?

              Maybe they don’t have an intention or realise how their behaviour is affecting other people around them.

              Be careful with sentences like “s/he’s always trying to” – because you might be describing the result as you see it, and not what the other person is actually trying to do.

              Is there a problem with the processes?

              I’m not saying that you should use the company’s processes to criticise people all the time, but deciding how to do something, what steps are important, what order they should be in, and who should do them is a good way to manage expectations and help people to see what they need to be doing. Sometimes structure and a list of steps prevents misunderstandings and miscommunication.

              Does the behaviour need to be challenged?

              Sometimes there is no easy solution or different way of communicating that would make things better. Some behaviour is just not ok and it needs to be challenged by the person’s manager or however the management structure works in your organisation. I’m thinking here of things like bullying, harassment, manipulation, or any other form of treating people badly. This is usually not the other people’s problem to solve and this article is not really about things like this.

              Tips for communication

              Avoid words like always and never

              Try not to say things like:
              You never listen
              You are always complaining

              Instead, focus on actual real-life situations that have happened. Things that you can be specific about. Things that the other person can hopefully remember.

              Last week …
              At the team meeting on Friday …
              When you replied to my email yesterday …

              The problem with “you always” or “you never” sentences is that people can feel that nothing they do is ever good enough because you have already decided that they always get things wrong.

              Focus on the problem, not the person

              It’s easy to get carried away with how annoying or disrespectful or generally incompetent someone is in your opinion, but if you’re trying to address the situation, it’s better to focus on the problem.

              If this information isn’t submitted on time, we can’t …/the customer will///
              If these problems aren’t fixed, that will impact …
              If we don’t meet our promise/service level agreement to …

              What result will there be for the business or the customer? What result will there be that directly effects the person? Or what result will there be for you that the other person may not have considered?

              It makes it difficult for me to
              I am unable to

              Focus on the behaviour, not what you think the person is

              Some ways that people behave in the office are not ok.

              Shouting at people is not ok

              Not allowing people to speak in meetings is not ok

              Talking over people is not ok

              But don’t get into name-calling or telling the other person exactly what you think of them or what kind of person you think they are because it moves away from the facts.

              Additional tips

              Plan what you’re going to say when you can be calm.

              Walk away if there is too much emotion. That doesn’t mean you’ve backed down and you won’t come back to the issue, but we all need time to collect our thoughts sometimes.

              Maybe you’re also doing things that cause other people problems. If you’re going to confront others, you also need to be willing to see how your behaviour is affecting others – even if this is a difficult thing to do.

              Don’t mirror the communication style – choose your own. Don’t match aggression with aggression

              Change can be hard

              Change can be hard, even if you see it as positive change.

              Maybe you struggled with someone before the lockdown and move to more online working. Some things will be easier because you don’t have to share your space with them. Less contact may feel like a good thing, but it may also mean you have less contact with those whose presence helped or supported you.

              Some companies have completely changed the way they work. However we feel about it, all change takes time to get used to.

              Remote working doesn’t mean you have to deal with challenges with colleagues on your own. As well as looking at communication strategies, it’s also good to look for support and not be reluctant to ask for help if you feel that you need it.

              Find out more

              You can listen to me talking about this topic on episode 183 of my podcast.

              You can also sign up for my monthly newsletter with tips and advice on various areas of communication using the form below.


                The English with Kirsty podcast

                The English with Kirsty podcast

                I’ve been podcasting for around five and a half years now. Originally the podcast was very specifically for English learners, but I found that my listeners wanted more than that, and I was getting bored of producing this fairly narrowly-focussed type of content in an already saturated podcasting space.

                What I wanted was to help people to really communicate well. To learn to be themselves in another language or their main language. To get across their thoughts and ideas in a way that makes sense and facilitates real connections between people. That’s about more than just where does the verb go in your sentence and which adjective comes first. These things are important of course, and getting them right will help your texts and speech to flow better, but they aren’t the only things that you need in order to get your message across.

                So as the podcast grew, it changed. I started to draw more on my previous work in communications, and not only my experience as a language teacher.

                I have a large percentage of listeners who are learning English, and I want to continue to help them to do that. But I also have other listeners who are interested in language in general, presentation skills tips, communicating effectively at work, and working across multiple languages or cultures.

                What can you expect on the podcast?

                To give you an idea of some of the topics I cover, I’ve embedded two episodes here. Both of these are interviews, although I do post solo episodes too.

                Episode 182 – bicultural communication

                You can listen to episode 182 here:

                Today I’m bringing you an interview with Janina Neumann, a bilingual business owner and graphic designer whom I met recently through business networking.

                Janina is a bilingual graphic designer, intercultural management trainer, and business owner of Janina Neumann Design. JND is a bilingual design company, helping clients create a social impact in the UK and abroad. Working with social enterprises, charities and councils, Janina helps clients communicate their message equally effectively across different languages and cultures. Janina speaks English and German fluently and has a keen interest in learning new languages, including French and Farsi.

                Here are some of the points that we explore in our conversation:

                • Janina’s experience of differences in communication across cultures.
                • The balance between showing an interest and getting things done.
                • Tips for anyone planning to move from Germany to the UK.
                • How learning other languages can help you to understand more about those that you already speak.
                • Staying in touch with customers and colleagues as our working environments change.

                You can find out more about Janina here:

                • Janina’s Facebook page
                • Twitter
                • Instagram
                • Janina’s YouTube channel
                • Episode 181 – communicating well to create a good first impression with customers

                  You can listen to episode 181 here:

                  Today I’m bringing you an interview with my friend and business mentor, Lor Bradley.

                  Lor Bradley is one of the UK’s leading business strategists. Think of Lor as the epitome of understated brilliance. No fanfare. Just results. She has owned, started, scaled and sold global businesses for herself and her clients for almost 30 years. Lor is an introvert entrepreneur, prefers an easy life and is a cheerleader for building social equity. Lor is an online business mentor + trained consultant, not a business coach, so unlike most coaches, Lauryn has the practical experience and geek-ery to show you how to grow your business to 7 figures and beyond.

                  Here are some of the points that we explore in our conversation:

                  • Good communication as a way to build relationships
                  • Communicating well to make a good first impression
                  • Responding to and learning from negative feedback
                  • Making sure that auto-responders and those who work for you are following your brand’s communication style
                  • Lor’s resources to support women business owners.

                  This is my affiliate link to Lor’s membership programme for “women and non-binary business owners who aspire to run a thriving business, build a consistent income and hang out with others who ‘get it’!”

                  Also, you can find out more about Lor here:

                  • Lor’s Facebook page
                  • Lor’s YouTube Channel
                  • Lor’s website.
                  • If you liked the podcast

                    If you’d like to listen to further episodes of the podcast, the easiest way is to subscribe to it wherever you usually get your podcasts.Alternatively, all previous episodes are on the podcast page of my English with Kirsty website. Alternatively, I upload the audio to my YouTube channel.

                    Find out more

                    I also link relevant episodes of the podcast in my monthly EwK Services newsletter. You can sign up for it using the form below.


                  8 times people assumed and got it wrong with my access requirements

                  Sometimes people have a general idea about accessibility, alternatives or adjustments, but a one-size-fits-all approach is often as bad, if not worse, than doing nothing at all.

                  What’s the problem?

                  Everyone is different. People have different needs, different abilities, and some adjustments just won’t make any difference to them.

                  Often, the worst thing you can do is to make assumptions. The best person to know what will be helpful is the person who actually needs the help. Or maybe they don’t need any help – you wouldn’t believe how many times I’ve just been going about my day, but people saw the guide dog or white cane and automatically assumed I needed something!

                  Most of these adjustments would have been helpful to someone – just not to me. Some aren’t adjustments at all – just a bad way of doing things.

                  I have no problem with people asking questions. In fact I have more of a problem with disabled people getting snappy when others are asking questions because they want to offer help or just be friendly and aren’t sure what to say.

                  But assumptions are a problem, because you can get it wrong, and in some cases you might communicate the message that you, as a stranger, know better than someone who has possibly been living with their disability or medical condition for years.

                  Most of these people were well-meaning or trying to do something helpful, but I want to use some of my own experiences to show how that worked out in real life!

                  1. I’ll send you the information in large print

                  This was a utility company. I was having a long drawn-out issue with them, which had nothing to do with my disability. However, as soon as the customer representative found out that I had a visual impairment, she insisted on sending everything to me in large print.

                  This would be fine if I could see well enough to read large print, but I can’t see anything. Email would have been great, and it is the solution that we finally agreed on so that I could read the correspondence. It somehow took a while for the large print to stop coming though, and this made me sad – it went straight in the shredder (more work) or the recycling (waste of paper), and it was really not necessary!

                  Tip: accessible formats are great, but only if the person can access that format. Braille would have been ok for me too, but not all blind people can read it.

                  2. We don’t have step-free access, so that might be a problem

                  A lack of step-free access is definitely a problem for people who need step-free access, but that doesn’t automatically include all people with a visual disability.

                  My last four houses have had stairs. I often took the stairs rather than the lift at work because it was good exercise. Not being able to see doesn’t mean that a person is looking for step-free access.

                  Tip: Step-free access is a way to make sure that your event, building etc is accessible to as many people as possible. This is a good thing. But if you make the assumption that all disabled people will have a problem if you can’t provide it is not helpful.

                  3. I’ve brought a wheelchair

                  My pet hate at the airport. It hasn’t happened to me as much recently because I’ve usually been accompanied by my partner, but when I was travelling on my own a lot, you could be sure that they would turn up every single time. The obligatory wheelchair in which I was expected to travel. I never did.

                  To be fair, this was more of an issue in UK airports than anywhere else, but it often took a robust discussion before the wheelchair was taken away.

                  Some blind people just go with it because it’s easier, but I can’t do that. For a start, there may be someone who actually needs the wheelchair, and they might be waiting for it. But really it’s the blanket assumption that all disabled people are unable to walk, and the suggestion that I should use it because it’s easier to transport me that way than to walk alongside me, that I object to.

                  I’ll get on the carts with my luggage – that makes sense and is faster. But keep the wheelchairs for people who genuinely need them.

                  Tip: Ask people what kind of assistance they require and don’t assume that everybody wants or needs the same things. Wheelchairs should be provided for people who need them.

                  4. I’ll make it nice and loud for you

                  Most blind people don’t need things to be louder. In addition to my blindness, I have noise sensitivities, which means that loud things are particularly unpleasant and I will generally try to get away from them.

                  Tip: people with vision-related disabilities don’t need you to over-compensate with another sense. We don’t have super-senses as some would have you believe, but we are generally good at using our other senses and don’t need things to be louder. People with hearing loss may, but sometimes just making things louder can distort the sound.

                  5. I’ll take your luggage off the plane for you – even though you asked me not to!

                  This made me angry!

                  An air hostess asked if I would like her to take my carry-on luggage off the plane at the end of the flight. I declined politely. She did it anyway.

                  This meant that A. I had no idea where it was, B. it was unattended and could have been stolen or tampered with, and C. she completely ignored what I wanted, thinking she knew what was best for me. She succeeded in making problems for me, even though I was doing just fine before she got involved.

                  Tip: Don’t ignore someone when they ask you not to do the thing that you think would be helpful. Maybe someone who had difficulty lifting or carrying things would have been grateful, but that wasn’t the case here.

                  6. I knew a blind man once and he …

                  In this particular instance it was that he wanted his food to be cut up for him, which I definitely don’t. Whatever it is though, one person with a disability is just one person with a disability.

                  Most of my friends have never met another blind person before and to be honest, I quite like that! It generally means they’re more willing to listen to how I do things or what they could do to help!

                  I do have some friends with lots of blind contacts, but they respect that we are all different. Some are more independent travellers than others. Some have better IT skills. We don’t all access information in the same way or want the same information about our environment.

                  Tip: Our diversity is what makes people interesting! Please remember this because even if people have exactly the same disability, there are so many other factors which influence their life, access needs, and way of interacting with the world!

                  7. I’ll speak to the person with you

                  There are very few occasions where this is a good or helpful thing to do. Does she want a coffee? Would she be interested in…? Would she like to…? None of these things are good. Nobody likes being spoken about in the third person.

                  My partner doesn’t engage with it and is likely to say “ask her yourself!” It’s actually quite infuriating though and in a business context I have made sure that companies have lost our business because of it!

                  Tip: just don’t do it! Speak to people directly.

                  8. Why do you need a guard dog in the restaurant?

                  I just included this because it made me smile. Really it was a misunderstanding. I often had people try to deny me access because I had a guide dog, but this person thought I was famous and needed to bring a protection dog. That’s not what I was asking for when I said my guide dog would be coming along!

                  Find out more

                  This wasn’t supposed to be a ranty post, but I did want to take some of these examples to show how well meant doesn’t always mean well done!

                  I don’t want to see people withdrawing and not doing or saying anything for fear of saying the wrong thing to an unapproachable, prickly disabled person (I’ve seen that too, and whilst I can understand some reactions, I don’t think it’s the best way to fix the problem!)

                  I want to generate discussion and do something useful to bridge the knowledge gaps, hopefully showing why some things aren’t helpful, and others depend on the individual set of circumstances.


                    Well meant is not well done – the importance of being a reliable accessibility ally!

                    In a world where people are becoming increasingly aware of issues around diversity and inclusivity, it makes sense that we want to do better. We want to do more to help people feel welcome, and we want to highlight those things that have been causing problems, or those beliefs that need to change.

                    I have seen some fantastic examples of this in action recently.

                    After some conversations about accessibility, I found that one of my business owner friends had gone to one of her suppliers with a request that they do better in terms of accessibility for screenreader users. It was great to hear how they’ve taken the first feedback on board and turned it into real action. This makes me happy!

                    It also makes me happy when I see people on my pilot course taking what they’ve been learning, from me, both generally and in the course, and putting this into practice in their businesses. This is helpful for me and for any other customers who come across their products or services.

                    Through inclusive action in their businesses and spreading awareness of what they’ve learned, they reach a wider audience, but they also lighten the load for people like me. There was a post in a Facebook group recently, and another business owner friend had already suggested how it could be more accessible – before I’d even seen it.

                    This is what being a good ally is all about.

                    I hope I can do the same for members of other parts of the community. I may not share their same access needs, or experience exclusion in the same ways, but if I know what helps them, and similarly what causes a problem, I can be an inclusivity ally to them too.

                    The danger

                    The danger is that in our eagerness to do something good, we can end up spreading misinformation if we’re not careful.

                    I wouldn’t usually think to write about this, but I’ve seen three instances of it in the last week. Two were on Twitter, and one was an article that someone forwarded to me because she thought I’d find it interesting. I did find it interesting, but not as an example of inclusivity!

                    I’m not talking about people just not knowing the most up-to-date information. The world of accessibility is changing all the time. Words go out of fashion. Technology is updated, so that things which weren’t possible in the past suddenly become possible. New technology or tools are developed. Companies bring in new features and updates.

                    Even in my own training, Some things stay the same, whereas others need to be updated.

                    But I’m not talking about that.

                    The three examples I came across were general statements about what screenreaders can’t do.

                    “Screenreaders can’t read PDFS” – retweeted lots of times, but it’s not true. They can’t read inaccessible PDFs, but if the PDF is created well, it’s not inaccessible. I use PDFs in my courses or for invoices etc all the time.

                    “Screenreaders can’t read hashtags if you don’t capitalise them.” This is more about my need for exact communication, which isn’t blindness-related, but still bothers me when I see things like this.

                    Uncapitalised hashtags don’t read well, and sometimes I have to spell the word letter for letter to work out what it means, but that’s not the same as not being able to read it. I can’t read hashtags in a language I don’t speak. Uncapitalised ones just make my life harder. Ultimately I prefer it when people don’t make my life harder!

                    The last one is a bit specific and it wasn’t in English, but it was basically saying that screenreaders can’t read a certain type of punctuation properly. Except some of them can, including my own, and there are a lot of customisable options in a screenreader. So some screenreaders, if set up in a specific way, can’t read the thing. But others can.

                    If we help to spread a message that you can’t use PDFs, uncapitalized hashtags are unreadable, or a certain type of punctuation shouldn’t be used ever – that gives people the wrong idea. It makes the job of creating accessible content even harder than it needs to be. It’s not the intention, but it creates a lot of extra work and expectations unnecessarily.

                    Why do these things spread?

                    Sometimes people struggle to express things clearly. They know what they mean, and they assume everyone else has the same level of knowledge. This can lead to misunderstandings.

                    Sometimes a respected person shares something, and their followers trust them, so they share it too.

                    Sometimes people such as screenreader users themselves make statements about how accessible things are (or aren’t), but the truth is more that they don’t know how to do it, or how to get the screenreader to do what they want it to.

                    Sometimes people just don’t have the most up-to-date information.

                    So what can we do?

                    Check before you share

                    It’s like everything else. There’s so much stuff on the internet. Some of it is useful. Some of it isn’t. If you’re not sure, either don’t share, or find someone who can tell you either way.

                    Avoid sweeping statements

                    Some things are facts. But often we’re talking about big groups of people, who are influenced by so many other things and not just the one small thing they have in common. Especially if you’re talking about what people want, need, or feel, it’s better to say

                    … people may

                    Some … people

                    And then you won’t annoy all the people who don’t fit that definition.

                    Take a bit more time

                    I don’t want to single this person out, but when I queried one of the statements mentioned above, the reply I got was along the lines of “I know that, but I didn’t have enough characters to explain it properly”. Take the time for that extra paragraph or that extra tweet if it means you can avoid spreading misinformation.

                    Find trusted experts in the field

                    If you’re interested in a specific topic, find some good sites or people who share information about it so that you can learn from them.

                    Final thoughts

                    I know it’s hard sometimes. I don’t want to discourage people from sharing or helping – because we need the world to make changes and become more inclusive.

                    Even when it comes to recognised organisations, some of them are rejected by the people whom they claim to represent, because the people don’t feel that the organisation is representing them fairly.

                    Where you can, go to the source. If you want to know about people with a certain type of access need, go to someone with that access need, not some information written about them by a third party.

                    Of course it’s good to share and raise awareness, but equally it’s better to be sure of what you’re sharing. Otherwise it ends up being like those posts that keep doing the rounds on Facebook. People just share because they want to be helpful, whereas a bit of research would show they aren’t true.

                    Find out more

                    If you’d like to contact me or sign up for the monthly EwK Services newsletter, which will also contain links to new blog posts, please use this contact form:


                      If you’re interested in finding out more about accessibility, you may also be interested in my accessibility course.

                      11 tips for preparing a presentation as part of a job interview

                      More and more companies are asking for candidates to demonstrate their presentation skills, particularly for higher-level posts, or posts that will involve giving presentations on a regular basis. If you find yourself in a similar position, here are some tips that may help you.

                      Most of these tips can be applied to any type of presentation, but today we’re focussing specifically on presentations that are part of a job interview.

                      In some cases, candidates are given the material to present, though you might also be asked to use your own.

                      Here are my tips – do you have any to add? If so, let me know in the comments.

                      1. If you’re using your own material, make sure you have checked it, or ask someone else to check it. Spelling mistakes or incorrect information on slides can be distracting, and you don’t want people to stop listening to you because they’re focussing on something that’s wrong with your slide.
                      2. Don’t put all of your information on the slide. If the audience can read everything they need to know themselves, you’re not adding value by being there. Keep it to simple bullet points and key information – your job is to tell them what they need to know.
                      3. If it isn’t your material, make sure you understand it. Do some research if you don’t understand something. Don’t be caught out because you didn’t do your research properly.
                      4. Make notes, but don’t rely on them. It’s not a test of how well you can read from your notes. If you’re looking down all the time, you won’t be able to look at the interview panel, and also your voice won’t carry well.
                      5. Know your audience, or at least the roles that your audience will be playing. Is it a presentation to introduce the company to people who have never heard of it? Are you being asked to demonstrate your specific knowledge of a project or issue to people who understand it well? Are you being asked to simplify a complex idea? Knowing this will shape the level of detail you give, how much you need to explain, and the level at which you pitch the presentation.
                      6. Know how long the presentation should be, and try to stick to it. You’re likely to talk faster when you’re there, because most of us feel a bit nervous and want to get the presentation over with. Time yourself at home, so you know whether you have enough or too much material.
                      7. Think about the type of questions you might be asked during or after the presentation, and how you would answer them. You can’t anticipate everything, but it’s good to be prepared.
                      8. Try to be memorable – in a good way. If there are multiple people giving similar presentations, how will you make yours stand out? Is there a story, a memorable statistic, or a unique way of thinking about the issue that others won’t have come up with?
                      9. Keep people engaged – how you do it is up to you, but think about things such as being interactive, being clear about what you want people to do at the end, and why the presentation is relevant to them.
                      10. Your voice is important too –your great content will have no impact if you sound bored/your voice is too quiet/you are speaking too quickly.
                      11. Try to smile. I don’t mean you should deliver the whole presentation with a grin like a Cheshire cat, but as well as looking more friendly and approachable, a smile can often be heard in your voice too. It’s easy to have a serious face for serious subjects, but as well as making you look more friendly, a smile can actually help you too. Smiling releases endorphins and serotonin, which in turn can make you feel happier or reduce stress levels

                      So, do you have any more tips to add to this list?

                      Find out more

                      If you’d like more information about preparing for a job interview, you can visit my presentation training page.

                      If you’d like to receive my monthly newsletter with tips about good communication, either in spoken presentations or in writing, use the sign-up form at the bottom of this page.


                        The three levels of online accessibility

                        I navigate the online world with a standard laptop, a smartphone, and a screenreader – something that reads aloud the text that is on my screen.

                        One of my goals at EwK Services is to bring what can be some very dry and technical documentation to life by using real examples and everyday anecdotes about how getting this stuff wrong affects real people.

                        This isn’t a recognised way of dividing things up. You won’t find it in any official guidelines. But I find it helps when I’m trying to explain the extent to which online accessibility issues affect me and others.

                        1. Accessible, with a good user experience

                        These are my favourite websites. I can use them with no problem. I never need to ask for help. I can accomplish any task using my screenreader that a sighted user could accomplish with a mouse. I know exactly what I’m clicking – all graphics and buttons is labelled correctly and there are no barriers for me to overcome.

                        These sites keep me coming back. I know their owners care about me as a customer because they make sure that I have equal access to their site.

                        There may be one or two little things that could be better, but generally I have no complaints, and I’m likely to be loyal to a site like this ,rather than to shop around on other sites that may be more of a hassle to use.

                        The only thing I’d add here is that we can have web standards, but everyone has different needs. I am not affected by how good the colour contrast is, but other people are. I might be confused by an unlabelled button, but someone with a bit of vision might be able to work out what the graphic means.

                        Also, sometimes the user experience is as good as the skills of the person behind the keyboard. Someone might claim that an app isn’t accessible, even though many other access technology users are using it regularly and successfully. There is probably a training need here, and there may always be people, particularly those who are less familiar or confident with their software, who might try to tell you that something isn’t accessible, when the issue is that this individual hasn’t figured out how to use their own tech.

                        So, the issue might have something to do with the user experience, or it might not. You shouldn’t have to be a power user of access technology to have a good experience, but if one person tells you something about your site is inaccessible and other people haven’t had a problem with it, it may not be something you need to fix.

                        Also, there are many other combinations of browsers, devices, versions of software, and types of assistive technology that people may use.

                        There will always be a degree of subjectivity here when it comes to what’s an accessible and intuitive experience, but every barrier you remove brings you one step closer to a more accessible experience for more people.

                        2. Not completely accessible, but not unusable either

                        This is the grey area between the great sites and the horrible ones from my access technology user perspective, and it really depends why I’m on the site as to how much time and effort I’ll put in to figuring out a way to make things work for me. These can be workarounds like

                        • You can only do that particular task on the app, not the site.
                        • Click the first unlabelled button to do X, or “unlabelled3” to do Y. (Not intuitive, but consistent and it gets the job done.
                        • Use one of the more obscure report formats, because you won’t be able to read the standard one.
                        • Export the data, because the graphical presentation won’t work for you.
                        • There is a button/an input field that appears in an obscure place, usually right at the bottom, and you won’t be able to continue unless you find it, interact with it, and move on with your day. It isn’t intuitive, but once you’ve done it a couple of times, you know what to expect and where it will be.
                        • This site doesn’t follow the standard practices for the use of headings – something you’ll want to read will be above the main heading where you won’t expect it – but if you know it’s there, you can easily navigate to it with your keyboard.
                        • These are all things that can, and really should, be fixed from an accessibility point of you. I wouldn’t advise anyone to create a site that results in access technology users having to do any of them. But my point is, they are all tactics I employ on sites that are important to me in some way. Less familiar screenreader users might not figure it out, and to be honest, nobody should have to click unlabelled buttons just to find out what they do. I usually get assistance with that the first time because I don’t want to find out by chance.

                          The decision about whether I persevere with sites in this category is based on my motivation to use it. If it’s a service, I’m more likely to persevere and try and find a work-around. It’s a good investment of my time, because it’s something I’ll need to come back to. Ultimately it would be better if the site owner fixed the glitches so that I didn’t have to, but realistically these things don’t happen overnight and in the meantime I have things that need to get done.

                          I do point things out when I think companies will listen, but I have a life to lead, businesses to run, a home to manage – I only have 24 hours in the day and I don’t have time to point out to everyone when they’re making my life harder with their web design. I have to prioritise.

                          So, if it’s a one-time purchase and the process of buying feels like too much effort, I’ll probably go elsewhere. If it’s a service that I’m likely to use more regularly, I’ll have a bit more patience with it – on a good day. But this does mean that I’m doing more work than a non-disabled visitor to the site would have to, and that’s not really fair. People who already love what you do or know about your products might stick around, whereas others may look for the path of least resistance, which in this case will mean buying the product or service elsewhere.

                          3. The inaccessible sites

                          Here it doesn’t matter how well a person can use their access technology software. There is something about the site that prevents screenreader users from doing things such as logging in, using some of the functionality, or completing tasks. These sites are annoying. They are frustrating. They are basically turning people like me away.

                          Wherever I can, I will avoid them and take my business somewhere else.

                          The only time I will stick with it or go and get help is if there is no other way – some official form that I need to submit, something that I really, really want that can only be obtained from the inaccessible site, or something that would be more hassle for me if I didn’t use it. For example I use a service for one of my businesses, and although I’d like nothing more than to not give them another penny because they made their site inaccessible overnight, I know that the work I’d need to do to change this particular service provider would be annoying, so it’s easier to get a bit of help on the few occasions when I need to use the inaccessible interface.

                          Usually I just avoid them though, because the experience makes me more dependent on others than should be necessary. This can be a pain to organise, make me feel dependent, and I don’t really want to support businesses that don’t care about making an inclusive experience for all of their customers.

                          In which category would your site appear?

                          So, do you know where your site would be? Would it be in the first category, that I’d love to visit, in the second, where I’d need to figure out some things that fell short of the accessibility best practice standards but at a push I could still use it, or are you in the third category, because you have features that make the site completely inaccessible to a screenreader user?

                          If you’re not sure, I offer screenreader accessibility usability consultancy and would be happy to talk through the details with you. I also have a free factsheet about some of the biggest problems I encounter on websites, social media platforms, in training materials, and at events. To find out more about my consultancy work or the free factsheet, you can visit my accessibility page.


                          Preparing to give presentations–answering questions

                          People can spend a lot of time preparing their presentations, but often they don’t plan for what might happen in a question and answer session at the end.

                          It’s true that not all presentations are followed by a question and answer session, but if yours will be, it’s worth spending a bit of time thinking about the kind of questions that might come up, and how you would answer them.

                          First let’s look at the reasons why people ask questions after could be because they:

                          1. Want to find out further information about a particular point.
                          2. Didn’t understand something.
                          3. Didn’t agree with something and want to challenge you.
                          4. Want to clarify what you said – to be sure that they understood it correctly.

                          You can never know exactly what questions will be asked, and you might do a load of preparation, only to find there are no questions at the end, but it’s good if you think about these things beforehand so that you are prepared:

                          1. Related issues

                          You may be able to talk about your topic all day long, but think about any related points that are likely to come up, and make sure you feel comfortable talking about them too. This might mean doing a bit of research. Has anything related to your topic been in the news lately? What additional information have people wanted to know when you’ve talked about this subject before?

                          I usually do this exercise when I’m teaching adult learners of English, but it’s not just about the language we use. Do you generally feel confident talking about not only your subject, but related topics and questions that may come up?

                          Don’t spend too long on this, but it’s worth thinking about any facts you might like to take in with you in your notes, just in case you need them.

                          2. Will the exercise be accessible to people who find it hard to speak in public?

                          Depending on the size of the group, people may be reluctant to speak in front of everyone else – could you provide a way for them to submit questions in writing/tweet questions/type them in a chat box if you are using video conferencing software?

                          3. Only answer the question

                          Today I was sent to a website that had over 2000 links on it an took an eternity to load. I gave up. It’s fine to add detail, but try to give succinct answers to questions. Talking more doesn’t always prove you know your stuff –sometimes adding too much detail can be counterproductive because people lose interest.

                          Also, whether the question was not very clear or you just didn’t hear the speaker because of the acoustics in a large room, you may need to clarify the question if you didn’t understand it, and you shouldn’t feel bad about that. It’s better to check the question than to answer the wrong question!

                          4. Are there any contentious issues?

                          Are there people in your audience who are likely to disagree with any of your points, or request further information before they believe you? If so, think about how you would deal with this.

                          5. Could people want extra facts and figures?

                          If they do, there’s nothing wrong with saying that you’ll provide them later, particularly if it’s information that you don’t have to hand, but if you can anticipate any questions about data that people may ask, you can be well-prepared and have the information with you, even if you don’t choose to include that level of detail in your presentation.

                          6. You don’t have to answer every question

                          If someone keeps asking questions, and nobody else can get a word in, you don’t have to let them monopolise the talking time. Similarly, if someone wants to take you down a rabbit hole, with a discussion that is too specific and of little interest to everyone else, it’s fine to say that you will come back to the other person after the presentation. Rather than being rude, this shows that you value everyone’s time and don’t want to take it up with something that is not useful to them. If someone asks something that is too personal or completely irrelevant, you are not obliged to answer that either!

                          7. What is the audience most likely to be interested in?

                          It may be a generic presentation, but how much do you know about your audience? Are there particular parts of the presentation that are likely to be more relevant to them and generate questions? What will you do if there are too many questions for the time available? Is there some other way that participants can contact you?

                          8. What to do if you don’t know the answer

                          I think it’s often the case that people worry about not knowing the answer. If you don’t know the answer, it’s better to be honest and offer to respond later, delegate to someone else who may know, or say that you don’t have that information than to try and wing it, or give information that could later be proved to be incorrect. Nobody can be expected to know everything.

                          However, this isn’t an excuse for bad preparation – if you don’t know your subject area, it will reflect badly on you!

                          9. Spending too long on a particular topic

                          If the whole room wants to go deeper on a specific point, it might be a good idea. However, if it’s only one or two people, you need to be mindful of the time available and check whether there were any other questions or comments.

                          10. Written information

                          People process information in different ways. Consider whether you want to give a hand-out or a copy of the slides after the presentation. Then participants don’t need to take notes or check facts and figures, and if you’ve already covered something, you can explain that the details are in the hand-out.

                          11. What if there are no questions?

                          This isn’t always a bad thing. It could just mean that the attendees have understood everything. You may want to give them a way of asking questions if they think of one later (email/Twitter etc), but having no questions to answer isn’t necessarily a bad thing. It might just mean that your presentation ends a bit earlier, or you could prepare a bit of extra information, or a deeper explanation about something on your slides that you could give to fill the time.

                          Sometimes being spontaneous is more difficult than preparing for the presentation itself, but hopefully these tips will give you something to think about and help you prepare.

                          Get in touch

                          If you’d like to contact me or sign up for the monthly EwK Services newsletter, which will also contain links to new blog posts, please use this contact form:


                            The F word in online accessibility – frustration!

                            I’m not a writer who often talks about feelings – whether I’m writing articles for my business blog or my personal one. Of course I have feelings, but a lot of the time it doesn’t occur to me to share. That’s not just when I’m writing articles, it’s pretty much the same in real life. It’s a need to know kind of thing, and most people don’t need to know. Especially the more negative things. I don’t mind so much if people know when I’m happy.

                            So when it comes to writing about problems, I tend to focus on the facts. Problems and solutions. What makes it difficult for a screenreader user to use a website? How can people make their social media posts more accessible? Actionable tips. Explanations. Cold hard facts. But the thing is, we’re working and interacting with people, and they do have feelings.

                            Reading this post frustrated: the F word of disability” made me stop to think. Have a read about the research if you’re interested – even as someone involved with this subject every day, I found some compelling arguments that I hadn’t even considered before.

                            I don’t relate to all of the emotions listed in the post, which evaluates feedback of disabled consumers talking about inaccessible websites, but I nodded my head at a few of them.

                            Frustrated – yes, I’ve definitely been there. I sometimes even make it to the check-out, and then some inaccessible web element means I can’t make my purchase.

                            Angry – yes, I’ve been there too, especially if I really wanted the thing, or if the thing is on sale and likely to run out before I can get some assistance. Bonus points go to the wonderful individual who takes a perfectly accessible website and breaks it with the next update – you can read my thoughts about careless updates here.

                            Stressed – yes, that too, especially if I don’t have much time, and sorting out the problem eats into the time that I don’t have.

                            Anxious – not so much, but I can see how this would apply to someone who is relying on the thing, and they can’t get the thing due to some website accessibility problem.

                            Less independent – well yes, because if you have to ask someone to do the simplest task for you, an example today was selecting a date on an inaccessible date picker widget before I could continue what I was doing, it does make you feel less independent – because you are indeed less independent.

                            And the list goes on.

                            I don’t want this to become a rant into all that’s wrong with the world in terms of online accessibility, but I think it’s worth highlighting that there are emotions involved when people can’t use a service or website that others can use without any problems.

                            Many disabled people, and certainly many blind people, use online shopping or online booking sites more often because when designed well, they do offer a sense of freedom and accessibility that going to a physical shop often does not.

                            Our fridge freezer broke last weekend, but once we got the new one, I was able to do a new grocery shop to restock it, quickly and easily. It would have been a nightmare if I’d had to go to the shop on my own, locate the things I wanted with “help” that may or may not have been helpful, and then get the goods home without a car. Online shopping made that a 10-minute task for me, and for that I’m grateful. The alternative can be more costly, in time, money, and nerves.

                            If you’re a business owner, having an inaccessible site can result in money being left on the table, because although sometimes we get help – my fiancé gets involved with my online shopping habit from time to time – often people just choose not to make the purchase.

                            Sometimes I just think “oh well, I’ll go and buy it somewhere else”, and the competition gets the business. I tend to be a more loyal customer too – I get a lot of my cosmetics from one store because I know their site is accessible. If I know they stock the thing I want, I’m less likely to try a brand’s own website, because it’s often hit and miss as to how well their site is designed.

                            But it’s about more than that. Every purchase that isn’t made because of some accessibility problem has a person sitting behind that keyboard. They may be thinking “screw it, I didn’t need the thing anyway”, or they may be feeling any one of these other emotions.

                            It goes the other way too – when I find something accessible that works really well, it makes me happy, and I’ll probably share the experience with my friends without even being prompted too. Free marketing for the site owner! I might even blog about it on my private blog!

                            Much of what I do at EwK Services is to help business owners see the real impact they have, and the massive changes for the better they can set in motion when they start thinking about accessibility.

                            It’s not just something to do because it’s a box to tick. Despite the challenges in an increasingly litigious world, it shouldn’t just be about putting the right measures in place so that nobody tries to take legal action against you. There are real benefits to having accessible websites that go far beyond that. Because for every terrible experience I have, I also have good ones that make me feel empowered, independent, on an equal footing with everyone else, and just able to get on with life like everyone else who can use the site. If you have a website, you also have the power to have that kind of effect on someone’s day!

                            So please – if you can, don’t be the cause of the F word in accessibility – Frustration! To be fair, certainly in my case, the frustration can quickly lead to the other F word as well!

                            Get in touch

                            EwK Services offers consultations in a number of areas to ensure that your products and services are accessible to blind people (specifically screenreader users and Braille readers). Visit the accessibility page For more information about these services or how else I can help you and your business.

                            If you’d like to contact me or sign up for the monthly EwK Services newsletter, which will also contain links to new blog posts, please use this contact form:


                              How can you add value to your audience by repurposing your audio and video content?

                              Some people feel really comfortable behind a microphone or a camera. Facebook lives, Youtube channels, and podcasts have given people a voice in recent years and made it easier for brands to connect with their audiences.

                              This is particularly useful for small business owners who are often the face of their business. It helps to build the know, like, and trust factor when the audience can see or here you.

                              But what happens afterwards? Too often, some really good content just disappears into the void because there is nowhere for it to go. It gets forgotten about. New visitors to the site or social media page don’t find out about it, even though it might have helped them.
                              That’s why it’s good to think about repurposing some of this content, particularly if it contains a message that you think will help other people in the future. Here are 10 ways in which repurposing your audio or video content can help your business.

                              1. It stops valuable information from being lost

                              Some things are just for the moment – you really need to be there to get the benefit, or they’re about a specific thing that is happening/local event/day of the year. But other things are evergreen – they’re useful whenever you happen to see them, and someone in the future could find them as useful as someone who saw your video. As I’ve already mentioned, it’s good to make sure that this kind of information doesn’t get lost – after all, you’ve already put the work in. Why not allow it to help more people?

                              2. It can save you time if you don’t enjoy writing

                              I’m happy to write blog posts. As long as I have an idea, I don’t find it particularly difficult.

                              The same goes for making podcast episodes. As long as I know what I’m going to talk about and feel I have something of value to add, I don’t find that particularly hard either.

                              I’ve tried making some video content, but I hated it. I don’t do it now. People aren’t stupid – they know when your heart is in something and when you’re just doing it to play the Facebook algorithms that happen to be promoting video content at the time.

                              It’s good to play to your strengths. However, if your strength is speaking about a topic, as long as it’s your content, it doesn’t need to be you that writes it for you to get the benefit of written content on your website.

                              3. You can repurpose content for all kinds of things

                              The most common use I’ve come across is repurposing video content for blog posts, but it doesn’t have to stop there. You can make factsheets, that could then be used as a downloadable resource. If you have enough content on one topic, it could be an e-book. Maybe you’re creating a course, and you want to have written texts to go alongside your videos. There are lots of options if you get a bit creative!

                              4. You can reach new audiences

                              On my site for teaching English to adults, my podcast listeners are generally not the same as my blog readers. People generally have a preference about how they like to consume content – whether that’s reading it, or listening to it in the car/when they’re taking the dog for a walk.

                              It might feel like a cop-out putting the same information out twice, but if you’re reaching different people, it’s a way to get your content in front of new audiences too and won’t feel like repetition. It also gives people an element of choice. When I send out my newsletter for language learners, I often introduce the topic and then say something like “You can read more about this on my blog or listen to the podcast episode”, adding the relevant links.

                              5. There are people who can’t hear your spoken content

                              With video content, it’s possible that your words can be lip read, but that doesn’t work with audio-only content, and it wouldn’t help a deaf-blind person who can’t lip-read. Ploughing through word-for-word, automated transcripts can be hard work because there’s a lot of unnecessary words, and some things just aren’t transcribed well.

                              6. Automatic transcription services can be unreliable

                              This brings me on to my next point. I have seen automatic transcriptions of things that I have said that had errors in them and really didn’t come across well. Key information can be lost. It can be extra work to decipher. At worst it can look quite unprofessional. Yeah, it’s cheap, or even free, but it can come at a price if it detracts from the quality of your content.

                              7. It helps people who want to make notes

                              I’m the kind of person who needs to write things down if I want to learn them. I take notes when I’m watching online training, and I’m pretty fast. But not everyone can touch type, and sometimes it’s easier for people to go through the main points in their own time, highlighting or taking notes of the points that are important to them. If they have a written copy, you might make this process faster for them.

                              8. You can have a more succinct, permanent record of what you said

                              Presenting live information is different, especially if you want to spend time building rapport with your audience and helping people to relax. This content isn’t relevant to future visitors. If you have the main points of a talk in written form, stripped down to only the things that are relevant to everyone, it’s easier for people to get to the good stuff quickly.

                              I’ve stopped watching recordings of Facebook lives because people spent so much time chatting to those who were watching. I’m not saying they shouldn’t have done that, but if I could have accessed the main learning in some other way, I would have done that rather than just clicking away.

                              9. It can help your search engine optimisation (SEO)

                              There’s no magic formula for SEO, but if you have quality content on your site that uses the kind of keywords that you want to be known for, it could help you to rank better for those keywords and therefore increase your site’s visibility.

                              10. It helps on those days when you have no ideas!

                              Everyone has them – days where you want to create content for your site, but your mind just goes blank. I generally find going for a walk helps, but sometimes even that doesn’t work. If you can repurpose your existing content and get it out to a different audience or use it in a different way, you are technically still creating content for your site!

                              How I can help

                              Cara is a teacher who makes videos for her learners. I work with her to produce blog posts from her videos. It’s all Cara’s content, but I tidy it up, take out anything that would make the text harder to read or not flow as well. I add in some headings, so it breaks up the text and looks more like a blog post. All Cara needs to do is check that she’s happy with it, add any images, and it’s good to go online.

                              You can read what Cara thinks about this and also find out more about my audio/video to blog service on my transcription page.

                              Whether or not this is something that you need my help with, I hope this has given you some ideas about how you can get extra mileage out of your existing audio or video content.

                              Find out more

                              If you’d like to know more about my transcription service, you can click the link above, or ask me any questions using my contact form. You can also use the form to sign up for my monthly newsletter.


                                Are you making these mistakes when you use the apostrophe?

                                This may not sound like a very exciting topic, but one of the most common mistakes that I have to fix when proofreading texts for native speakers is incorrect use of the apostrophe. Therefore I decided to write a post about it to explain when it should be used and highlight some of the common errors.

                                When should you use an apostrophe?

                                1. to replace missing letters in words

                                Examples of this are don’t (do not), I’m (I am), he’s (he is). The apostrophe replaces the missing letter.

                                2. To show possession

                                This shows that something belongs to somebody. We can talk about Kirsty’s students, my mother’s car or my friend’s new coat. It doesn’t matter if we are talking about one or more things. It could be Kirsty’s student or Kirsty’s students. If the thing that belongs to someone is plural, the plural is made in the usual way.

                                I once knew a dog called Raffles. The rules are slightly different for names ending in an “s”, so I would talk about Raffles’ bed, not Raffles’s bed or Raffle’s bed. The same rules would apply to James’ bike or Nicholas’ jacket.

                                However this is a style issue and some people would advocate adding an ‘s to any singular word. Therefore you may also see James’s bike (but never Jame’s bike, unless the bike belongs to someone called Jame).

                                “S’” is also used to make plurals possessive.
                                My neighbour’s garden = the garden that belongs to my neighbour.
                                My neighbours’ garden = the garden that belongs to my neighbours.
                                My colleague’s office is the office belonging to my colleague.
                                My colleagues’ office is the office belonging to my colleagues.

                                I wrapped my friend’s Christmas presents = I am giving my friend more than one present.
                                I wrapped my friends’ Christmas presents = there are multiple Christmas presents and they are for more than one friend.

                                If two people possess one thing together, you need an apostrophe after the final name: Sarah and Robert’s house. If they have separate possessions, each person needs an apostrophe: Sarah’s and Robert’s passports were on the table. You can’t share your passport with someone because it only belongs to you. “Sarah and Robert’s bikes” is ok if they are a couple and they jointly own the bikes. You could also say “Sarah’s and Robert’s bikes”, if you want to emphasise that Sarah and Robert have their own bikes or that Sarah and Robert have nothing to do with each other and you’re just talking about their bikes in the same sentence.

                                What mistakes do people often make?

                                1. Using an apostrophe to replace a missing letter before punctuation

                                If the word with an apostrophe to show a replaced letter comes before a comma, full stop or other punctuation mark, you should write the sentence out in full. Don’t write things like:
                                I can’t believe how happy I’m. (It should be “I can’t believe how happy I am!”)

                                Are you going to the train station? If you’re, I’ll give you a lift. (It should be “if you are, I’ll give you a lift.”)

                                2. It’s or its? You’re or your?

                                It’s = it is. It’s raining.
                                Its = something that belongs to “it”. The dog wagged its tail.

                                Therefore you shouldn’t write things like “its cold today” or “it was winter and the tree had lost most of it’s leaves”.

                                Your = something that belongs to you.
                                You’re = you are.

                                Therefore you shouldn’t write “You’re brother came to see me yesterday” or “You don’t know what your talking about”.

                                3. Adding s’ to words that are already plural

                                Words like women, men and children are already plural. You can’t have one children or one women (because the singular versions are child and woman). Therefore it is not necessary to write “s’” after these words. The children’s toys (the toys belonging to all the children) were on the floor. The women’s changing rooms are that way.

                                4. Making plurals with an apostrophe

                                If you had a shop that sold vegetables, you could write a sign to say that you were selling potatoes, tomatoes and carrots (but not potato’s, tomato’s and carrot’s).

                                5. Don’t change the name of a company by putting the apostrophe in the wrong place

                                If I opened a shop called Major Chocolate Cakes, and I wanted to advertise my grand opening, it would be “Major Chocolate Cakes’ grand opening”. This isn’t because I’d be selling more than one chocolate cake, but because the name of the company can’t be changed. Saying “Major Chocolate Cake’s” would be changing the name of my shop. It needs to be treated like a name ending in “S”, as we did with James’ bike.

                                6. Forgetting the apostrophe

                                I’ve seen documents that talk about the customers requirements and the managers signature. The apostrophe had been forgotten altogether and even if the rest of the document is well-written, this doesn’t make a good impression.

                                Have you seen any mistakes that involved the apostrophe lately?

                                If you have, tell me about them in the comments section!

                                Find out more

                                This is where you can find out about my proofreading service. You can also get in touch with me or sign up for my monthly newsletter using my contact form.


                                  10 questions that interviewers might be asking themselves during your job interview

                                  There’s plenty of information online about how to prepare for interviews, what you might be asked, what questions you can ask etc.

                                  Today I want to talk about something else – the questions that someone on the interview panel might be asking themselves – about you. They aren’t questions that the interviewer can ask you directly, but you can influence their perspective and the conclusions that they may draw about you by conveying the right answers without being asked.

                                  Interviews are not natural situations. Interviewers know that people are likely to be feeling nervous and it’s hard when you don’t know what is going to be asked of you. But you can pick up all kinds of other information from people based on how they behave and even what they don’t say, so think about the impression that you are going to make, and how you want the interviewer to respond to these 10 questions.

                                  1. Has this person prepared for the interview?

                                  This can cover all kinds of things. Did you do some research online about the company before you turned up? Did you make sure you knew where to come? Did you ask questions that showed that you’re interested in the job or the work of the company? If you were asked to prepare a presentation, how much thought went into it?

                                  2. Is he/she really interested in this position?

                                  This sets the candidate who is just looking for a job – and any job will do – apart from the candidate who is generally interested in bringing something specifically to the company and the position on offer.

                                  This ties in with the first question. Can you relate your experience to specifics in the new job role? If asked why you want the role, is the answer all about your climbing the career ladder/getting out of a job that you hate, or is there something specific about working for that particular company or doing that specific role that interests you?

                                  3. Do I want to work with him/her?

                                  You can’t know someone’s personal preferences, but if you can, try to let some of your personality show through as well. Try and remember to smile! Don’t try to be someone else, because it will be hard to keep that up indefinitely if you do get the job.In any case, they might like the real you a lot more than the persona you’re trying to be for the sake of the interview.

                                  4. Can this person back up the claims on their CV with real-life examples?

                                  It’s not good, but people do exaggerate things on their CVs and applications, and interviewers may want you to expand on what you’ve written, or be ready to give examples to show that you do really know what you’re talking about, and you have done the things that you claim to have done on your CV.

                                  Think about the things that may be relevant, and make sure that you feel comfortable talking about them,.

                                  5. Does this person have a can-do attitude?

                                  If you go into the interview complaining about your current boss, saying how bad the working conditions are, or not taking responsibility for things that were actually your fault, it doesn’t make the best impression.

                                  Similarly, if you come armed with a list of things that you definitely can’t or won’t do, such as the boring parts of the job, it doesn’t look good either!

                                  Of course there may be things that you genuinely can’t do, such as a lot of travelling or certain patterns of working hours, and if that’s a big part of the job, it may be a dealbreaker for you. But I’m talking more about people making demands and being too specific about their own shopping list of requirements or nice-to-have wishes before the job offer is even on the table.

                                  6. Is this person listening to me?

                                  It’s not just about the talking part. People who don’t listen to the question properly are rarely able to answer it well because they don’t know what’s being asked of them.

                                  It may be tempting to keep looking down at your notes while the other person is talking so that you can prepare what you’re going to say next, but it doesn’t convey the message that the other person has your attention.

                                  7. Is this person only out for what they can get?

                                  How much holiday will I have? When can I apply for a promotion? What other benefits will I get?

                                  There are legitimate questions about the benefits package, what the working day will be like, where the role will be based etc. But if you focus too much on what’s in it for you, and not enough on what you have to offer, you can come across as someone who is only interested in themselves. Such people rarely make good team players.

                                  8. Does this person want to learn?

                                  Don’t approach the interview with an attitude that says you already know it all. Be curious about the company, the projects, the future plans. If there are areas in which you’d like to improve your skills, show a willingness to develop and proactively seek out opportunities to learn. We should never stop learning.

                                  9. Is this person organised?

                                  Did you arrive late with details for the wrong job interview and with odd shoes on? Most people won’t do all of these things on the same day, but if you make a chaotic first impression, it’s hard to get rid of that. Try to give yourself some extra time before you set off, so you don’t arrive flustered, even if things don’t go to plan on your journey in.

                                  10. Does this person have what we’re looking for?

                                  Ultimately you won’t know this. You only have the job advert, the job description/person specification, and the information in the interview itself to go on. There may be other factors that you will never know about. So all you can really do is be the best representation of yourself that you can.

                                  Now is not the time to downplay your achievements or be overly modest. The only information that the interviewers have about you is the information in your application and what you tell them during the interview.

                                  If you’re talking about what you’ve done, don’t just say what you did, but explain how you added value/solved a problem/increased revenue/made life better for everyone!

                                  Be memorable in a good way. You need to stand out from the other candidates, so don’t just reel off a load of textbook answers because you think that’s what the interview panel wants to hear. Show that you care about your work and the people around you. Show that you take pride in what you do and that you would be an asset to the new team!

                                  At the end of the day, only they know whether you have what they’re looking for, but this is your chance to sell yourself – not in a pushy or fake way, but in a way that gives the interviewers a good idea of what kind of person you really are and what skills, knowledge, and experience you have to offer.

                                  Find out more

                                  If you’d like to know more about my interview preparation service, you can get in touch with me using my contact form. You can also use the form to sign up for my monthly newsletter.


                                    Braille signs and accessibility – why these signs didn’t help me find my way around

                                    Not all blind people are able to read Braille, but for those of us who are, having information in Braille can be really useful. I particularly like to find it on hotel bedrooms. This means I don’t have to meticulously count the doors (no good if there’s a group of people or a trolley of towels in the way), and it’s a sure way to stop you accidentally trying to break into someone else’s room.

                                    However, putting up signs in Braille is not just like translating the sign into another language. There are a few more things to consider. A recent trip to a hotel really brought this home to me, so I thought I’d share my experiences here.

                                    Problem 1 – I don’t know about the signs

                                    Some blind people have a degree of sight and they may notice the signs. They may be travelling with someone as I was. It was my fiancé who first alerted me to the signs in the hotel, and he’s pointed out other random signs on our travels too. Signs about safety, opening times, toilets, or how to use a piece of equipment. The problem is, if he hadn’t been there, I would have walked straight past them, completely unaware that they were there, which rather defeats the object of having the sign there in the first place.

                                    Signs don’t work for me in the same way. They don’t grab my attention. They have to be pointed out.

                                    So, if you’re thinking about putting Braille signs up on your premises, there needs to be some training too. You or your staff have no way of knowing whether a blind person is able to read Braille, but if you think that they might, for example because they have a white cane or a guide dog, it’s worth them explaining that there are Braille signs around the venue. Otherwise your shiny new signs may just go unnoticed!

                                    Problem 2 – I can’t reach that!

                                    Now we come to the three problems that I found with the signs at the hotel. I’m not looking to make an example of this particular hotel, but I thought the issues illustrate my point.

                                    After we discovered the door numbers, my fiancé started showing me other signs – but there were a few issues with them. We did point out the problems to reception so that they could get them put right, but apparently the signs had been around for a number of years and nobody had commented on them before. See problem 1!

                                    At 1.55m, I’m not very tall. But the point of Braille signs is that you read them with your fingers. We found one that was so high above my head that I could only reach the bottom of it. This is a problem! Ok, many people are taller than me, but a building can’t just cater to tall blind people!

                                    I understand the thinking behind it – you can get away with putting printed signs higher up – but different rules apply when your sign has to be read with fingers.

                                    Problem 3 – the writing is upside down

                                    I couldn’t figure out what the writing said at first, but it was in fact upside down. The rest of the sign was not – all the arrows were pointing in the right directions and the printed lettering was right, but the Braille text had been printed upside down! Maybe the person creating the sign had been watching Stranger Things and wanted to send Braille readers to the Upside Down? Or maybe they just didn’t check. Either way, nobody was aware of the error.

                                    Problem 4 – the text is incorrect

                                    On these particular signs, I could read the printed text too because it was in raised letters. So I could tell that the Braille letters did not say the same as the rest of the sign. The printed letters were correct – the Braille was not and might have sent someone in circles looking for the room when they were actually right outside it!


                                    I’ve no doubt that the hotel wanted to do something good that made their venue more accessible to disabled people – and this is a good thing. I’ve no doubt that they also spent a lot of money on those signs because they were printed on durable plastic, which I’m sure wasn’t cheap.

                                    The part that was missing here was quality assurance checking – making sure that people for whom the signs were intended could actually use them, and that the company had paid for a quality product. If there had been some kind of strategy that had included user testing, or someone who explained some of the things you need to think about when putting up Braille signs, all of these problems could have been avoided.

                                    EwK Services offers consultations in a number of areas to ensure that your products and services are accessible to blind people (specifically screenreader users and Braille readers). Visit the accessibility page For more information about these services or how else I can help you and your business.

                                    You can also use this form to sign up for my monthly newsletter, or to get your free copy of “common barriers to accessibility” in terms of websites, products, social media, training materials, or events.


                                      Presenting to an audience that you can’t see – webinars, podcasts and live broadcasts

                                      In the past, giving presentations was all about standing at the front of a room and delivering your content to people who were in the same room as you.

                                      Now, technology has made it possible for us to deliver different kinds of presentations. Sometimes the audience is not in the same place as you. Sometimes they are watching or listening to your talk long after you delivered it.

                                      Whether you’re preparing content to be consumed later, such as a podcast or a Youtube video, or you’re broadcasting live as part of a webinar or Facebook live broadcast, it’s a different experience to being in the same place as your audience.

                                      For some people, this takes away some of the stress associated with presenting – you don’t see the sea of faces looking at you and you are often sitting in familiar, less formal surroundings, which in turn can make you feel confident. I love chatting to my audience from the comfort of my office because these familiar surroundings give me confidence.

                                      However, there are a few things to consider.

                                      1. Are you speaking to an individual or a group?

                                      This is the first advice that I was given when I created my first podcast episode. I used phrases like “hi everyone” and “if any of you want to know more”. This doesn’t actually bother me when I’m listening to podcasts, but unless you are trying to build a community, the chances are that the listener is on their own and they may never come in to contact with the other listeners. I don’t want to say that there is a right or wrong way to do this, but just think about whether you want to address a group, such as a group of colleagues, or to make things more personal and speak as though you are talking directly to your listener.

                                      2. Talking to yourself in an empty room

                                      I actually like talking to myself in an empty room. It doesn’t bother me! I don’t mind public speaking in front of a large group either, but I don’t feel strange about talking aloud with nobody there. Maybe that’s what happens when you spend years talking to pets and knowing that they probably aren’t going to give you an answer.

                                      Some people find the empty room distracting because there is nobody there listening to you and you can’t get the usual feedback such as an encouraging smile or a nod.

                                      Sometimes the problem is that people are not used to hearing their own voice. If you find this to be true, try delivering your presentation aloud to your dog or cat, or imagine that a good friend or supportive colleague is there with you and you are talking just to them.

                                      If it’s live, it can be even more off-putting if you can see that nobody is watching your channel, or not many people have signed in to the webinar. But remember, your content can be reused – Facebook live videos can stay on your Facebook page for people to watch at a later date, webinar recordings can be made available as a replay or on your site, so don’t waste the first 10 minutes saying “I wonder if everyone can see and hear me?” I’ve stopped watching replays or videos because of this – it was boring! Log onto the broadcast with another device if you want to know how well you can be seen, but try to focus on the content, rather than how many people are there at the beginning of the presentation. If you are going to repurpose the content, consider chopping the beginning if it won’t be relevant later.

                                      People have a tendency to pop in and out of live broadcasts and webinars in a way that they don’t in real life, so try not to focus on that.

                                      3. Make sure you get audience feedback

                                      You can’t see if you’re audience is nodding along in agreement, looking confused or staring into space. Therefore, make sure that you have a way for them to interact with you and ask any questions. This needs to be managed in a different way than in a face-to-face setting. Even if you don’t want questions during the presentation, you can ask people to put them in the chat and come to them at the end. If it’s likely to be a busy chat, it’s sometimes helpful to ask someone to help you manage it and pull out the relevant questions. They can also help to manage anyone who is being disruptive in the chat so that you can focus on giving your presentation.

                                      As well as showing a willingness to answer comments, this is also a good way to make sure that people are following along with what you are saying because you can’t gauge the mood in the room without some kind of feedback from the participants.

                                      If it’s not live, make sure that you have some way for people to contact you with any questions or comments. This could either be an email address, or you can direct them to your social media, or a comment form on the show notes page of your podcast.

                                      4. Think about your speed and delivery

                                      I was used to giving plenty of face-to-face presentations, but I remember when I did my first online one. I practised a couple of times beforehand. Each time it took me 45 minutes. On the day, the same live presentation took 35 minutes. I didn’t realise I was rushing, but I must have been.

                                      We don’t do it on purpose, but speaking too quickly is not fair to our audience because it often makes it harder for them to understand what is being said. If people don’t understand, they will lose interest, which is a wasted opportunity. Even though you might be offering a lot of value, if people can’t understand you because you’re speaking too quickly, they won’t get the benefit.

                                      5. Additional materials

                                      It’s a good idea to consider whether you want to offer anything else in terms of visual presentation or reference materials for afterwards. If it’s a webinar, you can put your slides on the screen or share your screen to give a demonstration. If it’s audio, you can offer a download of a factsheet on your show notes page. If it’s a Facebook live or some other kind of live broadcast, you can direct people to some further information on your website.

                                      6. Make sure your surroundings aren’t distracting

                                      If you’re not in the same room as your audience, you don’t need to worry about making them comfortable, but you do need to think about where you will be recording. When you’re live, sometimes things happen that are out of your control, but try to minimise this by being in a quiet place, making those around you aware that you are broadcasting, making sure the lighting is ok for visual broadcasts, and making sure there is nothing in your room that will be a noisy distraction to your listeners – even if you have got used to a ticking clock or a noisy fan, these things can become annoying for your listeners. Don’t play music in the background unless you own the copyright to it. Even if you do – consider whether your listeners may find it distracting.

                                      If it’s not live, think about whether, or how much you want to edit.

                                      7. Be smart about repurposing content

                                      If you’ve created some fantastic content, there’s no reason why you can’t repurpose it for other channels. The content from your webinar can become a stand-alone ebook. The information from your podcast can be used for a blog post – often your podcast and blog audiences are not the same people. Key points from your talk can become tweets.

                                      However, this has to be done with care because the different ways of giving information and the different social networks have their own requirements and audience expectations. People soon lose interest if they get the feeling that you have just dumped something from another platform. Does anyone actually like those reposts from Instagram on Twitter where the text gets chopped off halfway through?

                                      I’ve seen someone post a live interview as a podcast, and it worked really well. It was a smart way to get a group of people together to share their thoughts on a topic. I’ve also seen someone post a live video as a podcast and it was terrible because they were stopping every 5 seconds to say “hi” to people who had just joined the broadcast. Podcast listeners who weren’t there don’t care about that.

                                      I’ve seen people posting automated electronic transcripts of podcasts as blog posts and I found it really hard to read because none of the filler words or half-finished sentences had been taken out. I really wanted to tidy it up to make the reader experience better. I offer a service to turn audio and video content into text for blog posts, ebooks or newsletters if this is something that would interest you.

                                      What about you?

                                      So, sharing information when you can’t see a room full of people in front of you definitely has its advantages, and there are ways to give your content a much longer lifespan. Still, it’s important to be aware of your audience and their needs, particularly if you can only see them as names in a list of participants, or if people will be watching and listening long after you’ve finished giving your talk.

                                      Which way of presenting do you enjoy most? Would you rather be with your audience, or on your own? Do you like the chance to start again with pre-recorded content, or do you enjoy the spontaneity of going live?

                                      Get in touch

                                      If you’d like to contact me or sign up for the monthly EwK Services newsletter, which will also contain links to new blog posts, please use this contact form:


                                        Accessibility – it’s not enough that your website started off being accessible

                                        The worst time to ask for feedback is the time immediately after you’ve annoyed someone!

                                        Have you ever had that experience? You’ve been kept waiting on hold in a queue that went on for what feels like hours, or you’ve had the worst customer service ever, and then you get a request to give feedback about how satisfied you were with the service? Sometimes people are so annoyed, that they do in fact give feedback – and it’s rarely positive.

                                        I had a similar experience yesterday evening. I’m not going to name and shame the site here. I do sometimes use social media or my personal blog to highlight problems and try and get them fixed, but this blog is more about good practice. I will however explained what happened, because I think it’s important.

                                        The site is one that I’ve used before. It’s not the most accessible, but I can get most things done without too many work-arounds. Recently they decided to make some changes and update the page I wanted to use.

                                        I wasn’t aware of any improvements. Maybe it does look nicer. As a blind user, I can’t comment on that. What I did notice however, was that only two of the buttons that I might want to use had graphic labels. As luck would have it, the one that I wanted to click had not been labelled correctly. So I had a 50% chance between unlabelled0 and unlabelled1.

                                        Would you click unlabelled buttons if you didn’t know what they would do?

                                        I didn’t want to take my chances, so I asked someone to take a look and tell me which one I needed. I can remember for next time if I need to use that page again, but I shouldn’t have to. Sighted visitors to the page know what the buttons do.

                                        Apart from the obvious frustration, there are two issues here:

                                        1. Inconsistency

                                        Someone on the team clearly knows how to label buttons correctly, because the other two had graphic labels that my screenreader could read. In the same way that site owners want consistent branding and use of colour across their site, consistent web design and coding is important too, especially on the same page.

                                        If none of the buttons had been labelled correctly, I might assume that the person designing it didn’t know how to. But that’s clearly not the case here.

                                        2. Updates shouldn’t be a step backwards for accessibility

                                        Previously, the buttons on this page did have correct graphics labels, and these somehow got lost or overlooked when the page was updated. This actually makes the experience worse for me now.

                                        It’s easily done if you have more than one person working on a site, or if someone inherits a site that was designed by someone else, but it’s really important not to lose the accessibility features and basic good practice that were already built into the site.

                                        Don’t be fooled into thinking that just because you can’t see a problem as someone didn’t bother to label a page control properly that nobody will notice.

                                        In terms of the site in question, it’s not the first time that I’ve flagged an accessibility issue, it’s been fixed, and then the changes were lost in the next update.

                                        This is a strong argument for why accessible and inclusive design should be on the agenda as a matter of course, not an afterthought whereby people have to fix all the things that get broken with an update.

                                        Then they wanted my feedback!

                                        Directly under the unlabelled buttons was a request for user feedback about the new design. I was happy to oblige and I hope that my feedback will be acted upon. I’d still have preferred it if I hadn’t had to spend time tracking down someone who could help me with something that previously hadn’t been an issue.

                                        I’m fortunate. I do have someone who helps me with visual tasks in my businesses, but it’s an unfair and unrealistic assumption that blind people always have someone close by that can help them out. I don’t have help full-time, and if I want to use your site in the middle of the night when nobody is around, I should have that freedom just as any other visitor does!


                                        People are creatures of habit and generally we’re not fans of change. This is even more so if you break someone’s user experience with your next update, so it’s worth making sure that anything you’re planning to do won’t have a negative impact on the accessibility of your site.

                                        Get in touch

                                        If you’d like to contact me or sign up for the monthly EwK Services newsletter, which will also contain links to new blog posts, please use this contact form:


                                          Communication – what people really mean – when understanding the words isn’t enough

                                          A couple of years ago I did some research into some of the linguistic challenges that German customers faced when moving to the UK. It wasn’t about the English language itself, and the kind of problems that non-native speakers have, but about the gap they sometimes faced between what the words meant and what the person saying them actually wanted to say.

                                          I also wanted to use the examples here, to show that even though something may be clear to the person making the statement, there is room for interpretation on the part of the listener. That’s why it’s always so important to communicate clearly and to reduce the chance that someone may go away with a completely incorrect interpretation of what we thought or wanted.

                                          So, in these examples I was talking to non-native speakers, but these misunderstandings can easily happen between native speakers too. Some people naturally interpret things more literally than others, which is why it’s always better to say what you mean and mean what you say.

                                          Criticism can be less harsh, but you need to be able to spot it

                                          Understating things

                                          The typical English person doesn’t jump around with excitement or fling their arms round their friends in a warm embrace. Sometimes it’s not good to take their words literally.

                                          “That’s not bad”, can actually be interpreted as “that’s quite good”. “I’m not doing too bad”, probably just means “I’m doing ok!”

                                          According to Marco, people in Germany are more direct than they are in the UK. As a result, it’s important to listen out for the hidden or understated messages because people might not spell them out for you. “I am a bit disappointed that” probably means that the person is very disappointed. We sometimes use words like “a bit” or “quite” to soften the blow, but the key words in the sentence are “I’m disappointed”.

                                          I know that I have been guilty of this as a teacher in the past. “I have A few minor corrections” does often mean exactly that, but sometimes it means “I’ve read your work and now I’m going to tell you about your mistakes. There were actually more than a few minor ones but I don’t want you to feel bad”.

                                          Sometimes people don’t mean what they say

                                          There are no definite rules. Sometimes, “I’ll bear it in mind” does mean exactly that. The person will take your comment on board and think about it going forward. However it can also mean “That’s a completely useless contribution, but I have to acknowledge it so as not to be impolite”.

                                          In the same way, “that’s interesting” can mean any number of things from it’s indeed really interesting to it’s strange or it’s completely irrelevant, let’s move on. The key here is to think about what else the person is saying, how quickly they want to move on, whether they look bored or eager to learn more.

                                          Let’s get to the point

                                          This is what Angelika had to say: “British people seem to beat around the bush a lot before they get down to business instead of getting straight to the point. It frustrates me sometimes as I just want to get on with it.”

                                          Sometimes English people are masters of conversation when it comes to superficial subjects such as the weather. It’s a way to break the ice. Everyone can have an opinion and it’s hard to get into a controversy unless you get into a heated debate about global warming. This may go on longer than you are used to, but plunging straight into the business details may leave people feeling that you’re not interested in them, but only the task at hand.

                                          Some people will feel happy spending a whole evening with you without telling you much about themselves. They may choose to open up once they know you better, or they may not. And whatever you do, don’t expect people to be open about their age. Most won’t!

                                          Being polite vs being honest

                                          Anja shared quite openly about the difficulties she faced in this area. “I found there is a different culture in how people communicate and at the start I really struggled with people being polite but actually not meaning what they said in the same way I was used to from German friends. People are a lot more polite on the surface and less straightforward, which I think can be a struggle to start with; Not just in business.”

                                          “It’s fine” or “it doesn’t matter” shouldn’t be taken literally if someone has a face like thunder or a scowl, or if the other person keeps going on about the thing that apparently doesn’t matter!

                                          People who don’t do what you expect them to aren’t necessarily being rude

                                          Particularly among colleagues, the salutation in emails is often dropped. So there’s no “kind regards”, “best wishes” or “have a good weekend”. Sometimes there’s just the person’s name at the bottom. Sometimes they just write your name at the top, with no “dear”, “hi” etc. Whilst I may be tempted to do that if someone is annoying me, many people do it out of habit and there is no hidden message at all. In this way, English people can offend colleagues from other parts of the world without even realising it.

                                          Christina said “I noticed that it is not uncommon here that people don’t greet each other while in Germany we shake hands with every colleague in the morning.”

                                          I would think it rude if I said “good morning” to a colleague and they didn’t answer, but I think that, generally, particularly in the big cities, we are less likely to greet people than in other parts of the world. I remember going to get a coffee in a hotel in Sweden and some people whom I didn’t know said good morning to me on the way past. I returned the greeting, but it took me by surprise because it’s not what I’m used to.

                                          In terms of people that you know, greeting them is normal, but many English people only shake hands the first time that they meet someone. They wouldn’t do it every day.

                                          Less formality

                                          It’s not all bad! According to Christine, the atmosphere seems much more relaxed in the UK, people joke and are not very formal.

                                          Christine is the second person to mention joking, and it’s true – we can be a less formal, relaxed bunch of people.

                                          Anne-Marie pointed out that in the UK people usually start off on a first name basis, whereas in Germany, people happily work alongside each other for years before offering the “Du”. This is true. When I worked in a previous role, even the Directors were spoken to using their first names and this was completely normal. It’s just a different kind of working culture. It doesn’t mean that we respect them any less or that we are closer to our colleagues – it’s just a different way of doing things.

                                          So, what does this mean for you?

                                          For me, as an English person, I find direct communication refreshing. You don’t waste time promising to do things that you have no intention of doing. Yes means yes and no means no. I didn’t think that we, as English people, were particularly polite, but what my German contacts tell me suggests otherwise. Maybe I’m just not typically British!

                                          It’s true that this article focussed on intercultural differences in communication, but I think there’s also a lesson to be learned about how we communicate with people in general. Is it really clear and obvious what we mean? Do we try to dress things up so that they sound friendly, but in doing so hide some of the core meaning? Could what we write or say be confusing to someone that doesn’t know us? If so, how can we fix it?

                                          If you have any thoughts on this, let me know in the comments.

                                          Get in touch

                                          If you’d like to contact me or sign up for the monthly EwK Services newsletter, which will also contain links to new blog posts, please use this contact form:


                                            Translation – 7 potential problems with translated texts

                                            7 problems with translated texts that make potential customers go elsewhere
                                            Have you ever clicked away from a website because the text was hard to understand or poorly written?
                                            Many businesses spend a lot of time and money on their visual branding, but some forget that the message that they communicate through the text on their site is equally, if not more important. Here are some important questions to ask before hitting “publish” on a text:

                                            1. Has the text been checked?

                                            Some things are easy to fix – the mistakes came about because the person just didn’t check their work. I’ve seen plenty of hurried out-of-office responses that say things like “I’ll be back in the office on 219th August”, or references to the month of Julyne. It was originally June, but the extra letters weren’t taken away. I’ve also seen things that have clearly got through the spell-check, such as “click here to sign up for the curse” (not course), and even “lick here” instead of click here. Reading the text through once more could have prevented these errors. There’s no point spending ages on a text if you don’t give it one final read before publishing it!

                                            2. Was the writer too familiar with the text?

                                            This often happens with longer texts. If you’ve been working on something for a long time and you’ve read the text over and over again, sometimes you just don’t see the mistakes. Then it can help to have a fresh pair of eyes to look over the text and spot any mistakes that you have missed.
                                            This is also a good opportunity to find words or phrases that may sound find to you, but which confuse potential readers or which a native speaker would just not express in that way. I recently did a quiz on a German site about “common English words” and hadn’t heard of half of them. They were definitely not words that had cropped up in any business conversations I’ve had. They may well have been adopted into international business culture in Germany, but that doesn’t make them commonly-understood business English terms.

                                            3. Was an automatic translation tool used?

                                            I was in Amsterdam when I wrote this and I used Google translate on occasions when I couldn’t work out what something was on a restaurant menu. That’s fine. But I’d never use it for a text on my website or a message to someone. I’d argue that if a company has used an automatic translation for the English version of its site, it would be better not to have an English version at all, or to have less information in better English. However good the content was originally, bad automatic translations are a massive turn-off and they don’t convey the message that the company is professional or trustworthy.

                                            4. Did the translation follow the original text too closely?

                                            Sometimes you can tell that someone has really tried. They didn’t go to Google translate, but they tried to translate the original text word for word, so the English translation sounds a bit strange. Maybe the sentence structure isn’t right. Maybe idioms have been translated that don’t make sense in English. Maybe new words have been created. For example, German is full of compound nouns that we don’t have in English, so you can’t just string a load of nouns together and get the same meaning across. Sometimes words need to be written separately – you can’t have a “birthdaycake”.
                                            Sometimes the differences are more subtle – there are cases in English where we would use active sentences, whereas in German, it would be fine for the sentences to be in the passive voice. Sometimes we use verbs, whereas the German text uses nouns. If you’re aware of these differences, it’s easier to spot them and make sure that they don’t interrupt the flow of your text.

                                            5. Is the Choice of language right?

                                            Most people understand that they need to know whom the text is for and what language would be appropriate for the audience. The problem is that sometimes it’s harder to get this right in another language. I’ve seen formal texts sprinkled with slang terms that are usually reserved for friends, and more chatty texts peppered with words that have obviously come straight from the dictionary and which most people wouldn’t understand. Neither of these texts succeed in creating a good impression. The first one looks unprofessional and the second one confuses people.

                                            6. Is the text culturally appropriate?

                                            This is more relevant for companies that are writing for an English market than those who are using English as an international way to communicate. If you’re writing for an English audience, you need to keep the text free of clichés and stereotypes, otherwise the reader will think “ok, this obviously isn’t for me” and leave the site. We don’t all have log fires in our homes, as I was once told, most of us don’t have time for afternoon tea on a daily basis, there are actually days when the sun shines and we don’t all eagerly follow what’s going on in the royal household. Downton Abbey is not a representation of life in England today!
                                            On a more general note, part of being culturally appropriate is also making sure that the language is up-to-date and not past its linguistic sell-by date! There are some really good business English resources out there, but there are also ones that were good maybe 30 or 50 years ago. If people use the vocabulary in these resources, readers may wonder if they’ve just come out of a time machine. This doesn’t create a good, authentic impression for the reader.

                                            7. False friends

                                            English words are often used in other languages, particularly those related to technology or new social media trends. However, an English speaker won’t know what a handy is, and if you say you want a beamer for your meeting, they’ll wonder why you want a BMW in the meeting room. The request for a projector will make much more sense to them. The word handicapped has been adopted into the German language, even though it’s a word that informed English people try to avoid, preferring the more objective term “disabled”. Body bags are for dead bodies, not for the living.
                                            Those are just some examples to show why you should watch out for words that look familiar. Some of them have a completely different meaning for native speakers!

                                            How about you?

                                            I hope that has given you some ideas and things to consider when you’re translating texts into English.
                                            If you’d like some help, either with ongoing work or specific projects, I offer both translation and proofreading services.

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